Auspicious Birth — Part II

This is the third post in a series about bardo, the “transitional” state between lives. It is from a scholarly work by a contemporary Chinese monk, Master Shi Zhiguo, entitled Auspicious Birth. For authenticity, as well as for the convenience of any subscribers who read Chinese, I am including the Chinese source as well as the English translation.

For additional background and context, please read Auspicious Birth — Preface and Auspicious Birth — Part I

第二章 入胎 Chapter Two

Entering the Womb

第二章 入胎
一、投胎的愿望 2.1 The Wish for Rebirth 一、投胎的願望
 
在中阴生命的初期,由于轻便快乐的中阴身体,常常使它们会在短时间内沉迷于中阴世界的好奇之中,不太容易产生投胎的意向,直到后来,经历一些可怕的境遇让它们饱受折磨而又疲备不堪,极度的恐惧、寂寞、痛苦和无助,迫使它们不断的东奔西跑,寻求栖身之处,急切地渴望有个有形的身体,到最后这种心念会越来越强烈,几乎是如饥似渴一般。 For a short period of time in the early stages of bardo life, existence is happy, free and at ease. The bardo body is ethereal. This often makes bardos enthralled with curiosity toward their bardo world and so they will not readily develop an inclination for rebirth. Only later, when bardos experience frightening circumstances, are sick of suffering torment, are unbearably exhausted and extremely terrified, lonely, distressed and helpless, do they become compelled to incessantly rush about searching for places of shelter that they begin to desperately yearn for a physical body. In the end this yearning will become stronger and stronger. Almost as strong as hunger and thirst. 在中陰生命的初期,由於輕便快樂的中陰身體,常常使它們會在短時間內沉迷於中陰世界的好奇之中,不太容易產生投胎的意向,直到後來,經歷一些可怕的境遇讓它們飽受折磨而又疲憊不堪,極度的恐懼、寂寞、痛苦和無助,迫使它們不斷的東奔西跑,尋求棲身之處,急切地渴望有個有形的身體,到最後這種心念會越來越強烈,幾乎是如饑似渴一般。
 
有了投胎的愿望,投胎的机缘便接近成熟。 With the wish for rebirth, the conditions for rebirth will approach maturity. 有了投胎的願望,投胎的機緣便接近成熟。
此时它们的体形也差不多到了一个婴儿的大小。 At this time the bardos’ shape is close to the size of an infant. 此時它們的體形也差不多到了一個嬰兒的大小。
中阴境界并不是一个实有的境界,其中的种种境像统统是由中阴生命自己幻想出来的,就如同人类的梦境一样,虚妄不实。 The bardos’ realm is not a realm of real existence. All its conditions are entirely fabricated by the bardos themselves. It is like people’s dream states – fantasized and unreal. 中陰境界並不是一個實有的境界,其中的種種境像統統是由中陰生命自己幻想出來的,就如同人類的夢境一樣,虛妄不實。
好比做梦的人在梦中根本无法觉悟一样,中阴生命也根本无法觉知这种境界的虚妄,会痴情的迷妄为真,倍受折磨,苦不堪言。 It can be likened to a person who is dreaming and is completely incapable of becoming conscious of reality. The bardo is completely incapable of realizing that their realm is illusion.  Because of this, their fabrication of extreme torment and unspeakable suffering that they are obsessed with, is taken as real. 好比做夢的人在夢中根本無法覺悟一樣,中陰生命也根本無法覺知這種境界的虛妄,會癡情的迷妄為真,倍受折磨,苦不堪言。
佛经称之为“猛利倒妄”或“颠倒梦想”。 The Buddhist sutras call this “fiercely sharp confused fantasies” or “confused imaginings.” 佛經稱之為“猛利倒妄”或“顛倒夢想”。
 
正是因为中阴境界的这种“迷妄颠倒”的幻想,才促使中阴生命慌忙逃窜,四处搜寻避难之地,渴望有质身体,从而促成了入胎的前期因缘,否则必然弥留中阴,无有入胎之意向,人间也不会有新生命的诞生。 It is these “obsessions with confused delusions” that prompt bardos to scurry about everywhere for a place of safety and yearn for a physical body. They expedite the early conditions necessary for a bardo to enter a fetus. Otherwise, it is inevitable that bardos would just linger in the bardo realm and not have the inclination to enter a fetus. There would be no new lives coming into existence in the human realm. 正是因為中陰境界的這種“迷妄顛倒”的幻想,才促使中陰生命慌忙逃竄,四處搜尋避難之地,渴望有質身體,從而促成了入胎的前期因緣,否則必然彌留中陰,無有入胎之意向,人間也不會有新生命的誕生。
 
经历如此迷惑恐怖的中阴境界,一般中阴生命很难耐受,实在难熬过这非同寻常的四十九日,故这段时间就像一个极限期间,四十九天之内,一定会找到自己的归宿而投生,中阴状态也因此结束。 Bardos in general cannot endure a bardo realm of confusing terror. It is very hard for them to endure it for this short period of 49 extraordinary days. This time period is the limit of their endurance. Within 49 days they will definitely find their place of refuge to be born into. That is how their bardo state ends. 經歷如此迷惑恐怖的中陰境界,一般中陰生命很難耐受,實在難熬過這非同尋常的四十九日,故這段時間就像一個極限期間,四十九天之內,一定會找到自己的歸宿而投生,中陰狀態也因此結束。

 

 

二、

选胎的可能

2.2 The Possibility of Choosing an Embryo 二、

選胎的可能

 
当中阴生命遭受狂风暴雨,大雪冰雹,深雾黑暗,群体追逐等种种愦闹恐怖境况时,便迫不急待企求避难栖身之所。 As bardos are subject to their dreadful plight through countless forms of chaos and commotion: wind and storms, blizzards and hail, thick fog and darkness, being chased by mobs – they are forced, in desperation, to try to find places to hide. 當中陰生命遭受狂風暴雨,大雪冰雹,深霧黑暗,群體追逐等種種憒鬧恐怖境況時,便迫不急待企求避難棲身之所。
福德浅薄的中阴生命会冲向草丛,树林,洞穴,墙根等处;有大福德的中阴身则朝着高楼大厦,殿堂,床座等处飞驰而去,到达投生之地。 To reach their place of rebirth, bardos weak in meritorious virtues will rush toward grass, brambles, forests, holes, crevices, and the foundations of walls. Those strong in meritorious virtues will as a rule rush to high rises and tall edifices, mansions, thrones and luxurious beds, etc. 淺薄的中陰生命會沖向草叢,樹林,洞穴,牆根等處;有大福德的中陰身則朝著高樓大廈,殿堂,床座等處飛馳而去,到達投生之地。

meritorious virtues:  福德 (Skt. puṇya); beneficial practices; all kinds of good actions and the merit derived from them. [Excerpt from Charles Muller; source(s): Soothill, Nakamura]

这种选择上的差异,都是由各自意识中的惯性思维和固有模式的造作来决定,佛教称之为“业力”。 Where a bardo chooses to go is an innate part of the power of inertia created by each bardo’s particular thoughts (thought inertia) and the bardo’s producing it with its thoughts. In Buddhism this is called “karma.” 這種選擇上的差異,都是由各自意識中的慣性思維和固有模式的造作來決定,佛教稱之為“業力”。
正是因为选择的不同,中阴生命投胎环境的迥异,决定了他们来世出生时的族类及身份,那么来世的贫富贵贱在此即已决定。 These choices determine the rebirth environment of each bardo including race, clan and status at the time of their future rebirth. And so, whether they will be born rich or poor in the future is decided at this time. 正是因為選擇的不同,中陰生命投胎環境的迥異,決定了他們來世出生時的族類及身份,那麼來世的貧富貴賤在此即已決定。
从以上可以看出,一个人的命运完全是由自己决定的,决非“天定”。 From this we can see that a person’s fate is completely decided by him/herself. It is not at all a “mandate from heaven.” 從以上可以看出,一個人的命運完全是由自己決定的,決非“天定”。
都是自己生活中的惯性思维、惯性行为决定的,不关老天的事,所以佛教不提倡算命,而注重改造命运,就是这个原因。 Everything is decided by one’s habitual thoughts and behavior. It has nothing to do with heaven. This is why Buddhism does not promote fortune telling and emphasizes transforming our own destiny. 都是自己生活中的慣性思維、慣性行為決定的,不關老天的事,所以佛教不提倡算命,而注重改造命運,就是這個原因。

 

虽然中阴身已决心投胎,但并不是一次到位,要经历苦苦寻觅,反复试探才有望遇到真正有缘的来世父母。 Although a bardo is now determined to be reborn, it does not arrive at its destination immediately. It has to undergo a long hard search. Time and again a bardo will probe potential next life parents before it can hope to encounter the most suitable parents with whom it has a karmic connection. 雖然中陰身已決心投胎,但並不是一次到位,要經歷苦苦尋覓,反復試探才有望遇到真正有緣的來世父母。
凭借中阴身具有的“天眼通”,如属有缘之处,则无论多远,都会看到宛如萤火虫般大小的淡黄色光点,于是,仗“神足通力”, 便能以超过电光的速度神驰横行而去,瞬间即到;如不属自己的因缘,则与自己毫不相干。 By virtue of a bardo’s “supernormal vision,” it can see where its karmic connection lies no matter how far away it may be, even if it is as small as a lightening bug’s dim speck of yellow light. Then, with the power of its “supernormal motion,” the bardo can travel there faster than the speed of light, arriving in an instant. But that next abode will not correspond with the bardo in the least if the bardo has no karmic connection with it. 憑借 中陰身具有的“天眼通”, 如屬有 緣之處,則無論多遠,都會看到宛如螢火蟲般大小的淡黃色光點,於是, 仗“神足通力”, 便能以

超過電光的速度神馳橫行而去,瞬間即到;如不屬自己的因緣,則與自己毫不相干。

supernormal vision天眼通; divine vision: Eyes capable of seeing everything. (Skt. divya-cakṣur-abhijñā).〔瑜伽論 T 1579.30.470a3〕 [Exerpt from Charles Muller; source(s): Nakamura,Soothill, Hirakawa,Yokoi,Iwanami]

supernormal motion 神足通; supernormal power of unimpeded, rapid, bodily movement. This refers to such abilities as flying, penetrating walls, etc. (Skt. ṛddhi-prātihārya). One of the six supernormal powers.〔長阿含經 T 1.1.54b9〕 [Excerpt from Charles Muller; source(s): Yokoi]

不过,虽然到达投胎之处,如中阴身有大福德,所见父母品德低劣,福德不足,则双方“不投缘”,不能受胎;      Nevertheless, though a bardo has arrived at the place of its rebirth, the bardo and its new parents will not have a “rebirth karmic connection” if the bardo has strong meritorious virtue but the parents that it chooses have inferior virtue. The meritorious virtue will be insufficient and the bardo will not be able to accept the embryo. 不過,雖然到達投胎之處,如中陰身有大福德,所見父母品德低劣,福德不足,則雙方“不投緣”,不能受胎;
反之如中阴身福德浅薄,而父母身有大福德,也不能受胎,如《入胎经》中所讲“父母尊贵,中有卑贱,或中有尊贵,父母卑贱,如此等类亦不成胎”,唯有两者福德相当,且因缘合和,佛经中称必须有“相感业”,才可受胎而成血缘眷属。 Conversely, if the bardo’s meritorious virtue is weak and that of the parents is strong, it will also be unable to accept the embryo. It is as the Entering the Fetus Sutra states,

“The parents, honorable and exalted; the bardo, dishonorable and disparaged. Or the bardo, honorable and exalted; the parents, dishonorable and disparaged. For such kinds, an embryo will not form.”

Only when meritorious virtue matches, with causes and conditions that match, which the sutra calls “mutually needed karma,” will the bardo accept the embryo, becoming the parents’ blood relative.

反之如中陰身福德淺薄,而父母身有大福德,也不能受胎,如《入胎經》中所講“父母尊貴,中有卑賤,或中有尊貴,父母卑賤,如此等類亦不成胎”,唯有兩者福德相當,且因緣合和,佛經中稱必須有“相感業”,才可受胎而成血緣眷屬。

 

     通过这一点,已提示我们小孩先天的优劣好坏,实际上间接取决于父母的福德积累和道德修养;      Thus we are reminded that the strengths or weaknesses, goodness or badness of our child’s innate character, in all actuality, indirectly depend on the parents’ accumulation of meritorious virtue and cultivation of morality. 通過這一點,已提示我們小孩先天的優劣好壞,實際上間接取決於父母的福德積累和道德修養;
暗示我们,想要生个聪明懂事、福德深厚的孩子,首先要提高父母的福德水平。 This implies that if we want to give birth to a deeply intelligent, thoughtful, and virtuous child, parents have to first raise the level of their own virtue. 暗示我們,想要生個聰明懂事、福德深厚的孩子,首先要提高父母的福德水準。
不然渠高水低,难以实现。 Otherwise, “the canal will be high and the water low,” meaning it will be difficult to make it happen. 不然渠高水低,難以實現。

 

三、入胎的条件 2.3 Conditions for Entering the Embryo 三、入胎的條件
 
当中阴身到达来世父母之前,会看到来世父母于床铺行男女欲事,如上所说,若两者福德对称,有“相感业”,便具备了投胎的基本条件,但还需一个重要的助缘——投胎意向,经文称为“二种颠倒”: Before a bardo arrives at the place of its future parents, it will see them in bed having intercourse. As mentioned above, if the meritorious virtue of both bardo and parents match, there will be “mutually needed karma.” This will meet the first basic condition for rebirth. But rebirth still needs an important supporting condition – the rebirth inclination which in the sutras is called, “the two contrary inclinations.” [i.e. contrary to liberation from samsara] 當中陰身到達來世父母之前,會看到來世父母於床鋪行男女欲事,如上所說,若兩者福德對稱,有“相感業”,便具備了投胎的基本條件,但還需一個重要的助緣——投胎意向,經文稱為“二種顛倒”:
 
(一)对男女欲事产生极大兴趣。 The first contrary inclination is extreme interest in sexual desire. (一)對男女欲事產生極大興趣。
在一般人的潜在记忆中,对男女之事,尤其贪爱,难割难舍,好似一种极坚固的本能的思维惯性。 Sexual attraction in the average person’s subconscious, especially regarding greedy love, is hard to cut off or let go of. It is like a solidly grounded instinct brought about by the inertial force of a thought. 在一般人的潛在記憶中,對男女之事,尤其貪愛,難割難捨,好似一種極堅固的本能的思維慣性。
如成年男女看黄色影视,每见淫秽镜头,皆如痴如醉,百看不厌。 It is like adult men or women watching pornography. When they see eroticism, it is as if they become dumbfounded or drunk and can watch the eroticism even 100 times without getting tired of it. 如成年男女看黃色影視,每見淫穢鏡頭,皆如癡如醉,百看不厭。
中阴身也是如此,见此情景,由于先前的习气,会身不由己地随之产生爱染心,不能自控,有意旁观而不肯远离。 The bardo is the same. When the bardo sees its own future parents having intercourse, the bardo’s habitual behavior of its former lives causes it to automatically be desirous. It cannot control itself. It will watch its future parents in the act of intercourse with jouissance from the sidelines unwilling to keep away. 中陰身也是如此,見此情景,由於先前的習氣,會身不由己地隨之產生愛染心,不能自控,有意旁觀而不肯遠離。

 

(二)主动参与意识。 The second contrary inclination is the bardo’s strong desire to take the role of one of their future parents in the act of intercourse. (二)主動參與意識。
有了爱染之心随即也会有贪心。 From the bardo’s mind that is now full of sexual desire, avarice will arise. 有了愛染之心隨即也會有貪心。
贪心一起,便会忘记自我,不知自己本无有质身体,糊里糊涂地只凭当下一念邪心,一味想参与进去,置身其中。 When the mind of avarice arises, most bardos will forget themselves. They forget that their bodies are not real. By these crazy, irrational desirous thoughts, they will blindly think of becoming one of the parents. 貪心一起,便會忘記自我,不知自己本無有質身體,糊裡糊塗地只憑當下一念邪心,一味想參與進去,置身其中。
或对其中男性动心,或对其中女性动心,急与之行男女事,满己一时之欲。 Such a bardo wants to fulfill its moment of desire. It is moved by the male or female of the pair having intercourse. It will want to take the role of the man, or woman. 或對其中男性動心,或對其中女性動心,急與之行男女事,滿己一時之欲。
或者虽明知自己本无身形,但此时早已迷失自我,浑然不知自己的状况,在不知不觉中,经妇人产道,被冲入母亲的胞宫,陷入到父精母血的混合体里(受精卵),不能自拔。 Or, if a bardo knows it has no body, it loses itself at the moment the thought of greed arises. It is totally unaware of its physical situation and at the moment of obsession it is unwittingly flushed by way of the birth canal into the woman’s uterus. The bardo does not yet know that it has been caught in the mixture of its father’s sperm and its mother’s blood (the fertilized egg) and will not be able to get out. 或者雖明知自己本無身形,但此時早已迷失自我,渾然不知自己的狀況,在不知不覺中,經婦人產道,被沖入母親的胞宮,陷入到父精母血的混合體裡(受精卵),不能自拔。
在这刹那间,中阴身将会感受到原始生命的第一次极大的喜悦感,称作“俱生喜”。 Instead, at that moment, the bardo will experience the first feeling of extreme delight in its primitive life. This is called the “natural delight of birth.” 在這刹那間,中陰身將會感受到原始生命的第一次極大的喜悅感,稱作“俱生喜”。
但如于男女之事不感兴趣,感觉乏味羞耻则无法入胎。 But if a bardo is not interested in the acts of sex and feels bored and ashamed by it, it will not enter the fertilized egg. 但如於男女之事不感興趣,感覺乏味羞恥則無法入胎。
 
伴随“俱生喜”的逐渐消散,中阴生命已被彻底地封闭在精血之中,逃脱不得。 Accompanying the gradual dissipation of “natural delight of birth,” the bardo will desperately want to escape being completely sealed in the fertilized egg. 伴隨“俱生喜”的逐漸消散,中陰生命已被徹底地封閉在精血之中,逃脫不得。
先前的神足通力,随即丧失,新生命的历程从此正式开始,痛苦的里程也从此开始。 The bardo’s initial “supernatural motion” is now lost. Its new life process will now truly begin, and its journey of suffering also sets off from here. 先前的神足通力,隨即喪失,新生命的歷程從此正式開始,痛苦的里程也從此開始。
等逐渐到达精血中央时,马上就会感受到好似在大锅中烧煮一样的炽热,痛苦万状,悔之晚矣! When the bardo is gradually melded into the center of the fertilized egg it will feel heat as if it is being cooked in a big cauldron. It will endure extreme suffering, but it is too late for regret. 等逐漸到達精血中央時,馬上就會感受到好似在大鍋中燒煮一樣的熾熱,痛苦萬狀,悔之晚矣!

 

四、生男生女的秘密 2.4 How to Give Birth to a Boy or Girl 四、生男生女的秘密
现代科学证明,人的性别由遗传基因来决定,是由精子和卵子随机组合而最终获得的,纯属巧合,一般情况下无法测知他们结合的情况。 According to modern science, gender is determined by inherited genes and by the random combination of a sperm and an egg. It happens by chance. Under normal circumstances there is no way to predict the gender of a baby.  現代科學證明,人的性別由遺傳基因來決定,是由精子和卵子隨機組合而最終獲得的,純屬巧合,一般情況下無法測知他們結合的情況。
但佛教的经典却从另一角度明确地告诉我们,性别的秘密全在中阴生命在投胎时的那一念之间。 However, the Buddhist canon explicitly tells us that the secret of gender is wholly determined by the thoughts of the bardo at the time of rebirth. 但佛教的經典卻從另一角度明確地告訴我們,性別的秘密全在中陰生命在投胎時的那一念之間。

 

当中阴生命来至父母身旁,见其行男女之事,必动之于情,爱之于心,迷之于性。 When the bardo arrives near its parents it sees them in the sex act. Moved by passion, its mind is powerfully attracted. The bardo will be lost in sex. 當中陰生命來至父母身旁,見其行男女之事,必動之於情,愛之於心,迷之於性。
由于与生俱来的天性,如佛所说“一切众生皆以淫欲而正性命”,中阴生命也不例外,于男女之事根本不能自主,便自然产生颠倒邪心,而邪心生起的那一刹那就是性别的分水岭。 As the Buddha said, “Sentient beings believe that lust is the most important thing in their lives,” (Surangama Sutra) on account of the natural instincts with which we are born. It is no different for the bardo, which cannot control itself when it comes to sex. It will naturally generate immoral thoughts of “contrary inclinations.” The moment these immoral thoughts arise is the watershed of its gender. 由於與生俱來的天性,如佛所說“一切眾生皆以淫欲而正性命”,中陰生命也不例外,於男女之事根本不能自主,便自然產生顛倒邪心,而邪心生起的那一刹那就是性別的分水嶺。

 

其中,如对父性角色生爱欲心,同时对母性角色产生极大的嫉妒心和嗔恨心,必然厌恶排斥于母性角色,而极力想取而代之,与其父交合; Among these thoughts, when the bardo lusts for sex with its father it will see itself as female. At this time, extreme jealousy and hatred for the mother in her sexual role will arise. The bardo will inevitably detest and be repulsed by the mother as she has sex. The bardo will make every effort to replace her and have sex with its father. 其中,如對父性角色生愛欲心,同時對母性角色產生極大的嫉妒心和嗔恨心,必然厭惡排斥於母性角色,而極力想取而代之,與其父交合;
若于其中母性角色产生爱欲之心,则必然讨厌其父性角色,一心要排斥并取代之。 If the bardo lusts for sex with its mother, then it will inevitably detest the father in his sex role. The bardo will see itself as male and with a mind consumed by repulsion toward the father in his sex role, will try to replace him. 若於其中母性角色產生愛欲之心,則必然討厭其父性角色,一心要排斥並取代之。

 

当中阴身很痴迷的将自己置身于男女之事中,并情不自禁地想取代其中一个角色而参与进去,以至于完全投入,那么它的意识中就只剩下男女二根的局部,忘记了男女身形的整体形像,它会变得昏沉而局限,它的意识几乎呈现一片空白,甚至于父母排出精血,也全当成自己的,那种自我陶醉感完全受过去的顽固习气的支配,中阴生命的所有记忆,统统抛之脑后。 When the bardo is obsessively placing itself into the sexual act between this man and woman, it cannot keep from thinking of replacing one of the roles and taking part in sex. The bardo will become completely involved. In the bardo’s consciousness it will gradually become nothing but a male or female sex organ. The bardo will forget the image of its original male or female physical shape.  It will become dazed and confined. Its mentality will practically be a blank, and the bardo will even fantasize the semen and egg of the parents as being its own. The ego it conjures will be dominated by its obstinate habitual behavior of its past lives, yet every single memory of the bardo will be forgotten. 當中陰身很癡迷的將自己置身於男女之事中,並情不自禁地想取代其中一個角色而參與進去,以至於完全投入,那麼它的意識中就只剩下男女二根的局部,忘記了男女身形的整體形像,它會變得昏沉而局限,它的意識幾乎呈現一片空白,甚至於父母排出精血,也全當成自己的,那種自我陶醉感完全受過去的頑固習氣的支配,中陰生命的所有記憶,統統拋之腦後。

 

也正是因为这种专注,无形之中在意识里存贮了性别的概念:如贪爱其父而憎嫉其母的,急欲取代并在心中培下了女性意识的根,生来必为女孩;

 

It is all because of this engrossment that the concept of gender unwittingly enters into bardo’s consciousness. Craving for its father and hatred and jealousy for its mother, along with intense desire to take her place, will foster the roots of female consciousness, and it will be born a female. 也正是因為這種專注,無形之中在意識裡存貯了性別的概念:如貪愛其父而憎嫉其母的,急欲取代並在心中培下了女性意識的根,生來必為女孩;
如贪爱其母而憎嫉其父的,心中已播下了男性意识的种子,生来必是男孩。

 

Likewise, craving for its mother and hatred and jealousy for its father, will sow the seeds of male consciousness and it will be born male. 如貪愛其母而憎嫉其父的,心中已播下了男性意識的種子,生來必是男孩。

 

这一过程提示我们:

①基因不是性别的控制因素,基因只是显现了性别。真正决定性别的端点因素就是中阴生命当初的一念“特别的爱”,而基因只是随顺它们的一种意识,并为此作了一个对应的服从和修改罢了。

This process informs us that:

1) Genes are not the governing factor of gender. They only show gender. The main factor that truly decides gender is the bardo’s initial thought of “a very special love.” The genes are only modifying to and complying with the bardo’s mindset.

這一過程提示我們:

①基因不是性別的控制因素,基因只是顯現了性別。真正決定性別的端點因素就是中陰生命當初的一念“特別的愛”,而基因只是隨順它們的一種意識,並為此作了一個對應的服從和修改罷了。

②淫欲心是人的天性,人因淫欲心和嫉妒心而生,所以也可以说爱和嫉妒是人的本性中的东西,与生俱来。 2) Lust is human nature. People are born because of lust and jealousy and so we can say that love, which is brought about by lust, and jealousy, are human nature and exist at birth. ②淫欲心是人的天性,人因淫欲心和嫉妒心而生,所以也可以說愛和嫉妒是人的本性中的東西,與生俱來。
常言道“自私的爱”,因为爱得自私就免不了爱得苦了,也显得很没智慧,就成为了“痴”,所以这就是为什么佛教要说众生的三个根本烦恼是贪欲、嗔恨、愚痴(也称作三毒)的缘故了。 This is what is commonly called, “selfish love.” Because love is selfish, it is unavoidable that love will cause suffering. It is also obvious that there is no wisdom to selfish love and it causes a person to become “mentally deficient.” This is why Buddhism teaches that the three causes of people’s fundamental troubles are greed (selfishness), hatred, and ignorance (also called the three poisons). 常言道“自私的愛”,因為愛得自私就免不了愛得苦了,也顯得很沒智慧,就成為了“癡”,所以這就是為什麼佛教要說眾生的三個根本煩惱是貪欲、嗔恨、愚癡(也稱作三毒)的緣故了。

 

五、中阴生命与精血、胎儿的关系 2.5 Bardo Life, Father’s Sperm and Mother’s Blood (egg) and their Relationship with the Embryo 五、中陰生命與精血、胎兒的關係

 

现在我们知道胎儿起始于精血结合物,在佛经内称之为“羯罗蓝”,译为凝滑,其色如蜂蜜和奶酪之混合物,其状则如奶酪上附着的凝固的膏状物,一种肥腻半透明的胶状物,有点像果冻的样子。 We now know that the embryo begins with the combination of sperm and blood (an egg). In the Buddhist sutras this combination is called “kalala” (first fetal stage). Translated into Chinese kalala means “congealed and slippery.”  It is the color of honey blended with yogurt.  Its shape is like that of the curdled cream that adheres on top of yogurt whey and is like a transparent oily gum with the consistency of jelly. 現在我們知道胎兒起始於精血結合物,在佛經內稱之為“羯羅藍”,譯為凝滑,其色如蜂蜜和乳酪之混合物,其狀則如乳酪上附著的凝固的膏狀物,一種肥膩半透明的膠狀物,有點像果凍的樣子。
这是中阴生命所依附的有质实体,也是胎儿生命在第一个星期内的大致形状。 This is the entity to which the bardo attaches. It is also the approximate form of the embryo during its first week. 這是中陰生命所依附的有質實體,也是胎兒生命在第一個星期內的大致形狀。

羯罗蓝first fetal stage; Embryo at the first stage of development, i.e. the first week after conception; the first of the five or eight phases of the human fetus (Skt. kalala). [Excerpt from Pierce Salguero, Charles Muller]

羯罗蓝,医学上称之为受精卵。 In medical terminology the kalala is called the embryo (fertilized egg). 羯羅藍,醫學上稱之為受精卵。
医学仅承认它是两性遗传基因的结合体,一个单细胞。 Medicine merely recognizes it as one individual cell: the union of inherited genes from two genders. 醫學僅承認它是兩性遺傳基因的結合體,一個單細胞。
而在佛教看来,还要加上另一层内容,即意识载入,此时它才具有生长裂变的活力,没有动力,生命不能成长。 But for this embryo to have the vitality needed to split into cell growth, Buddhism sees another layer joining in at this point in time which is consciousness. 而在佛教看來,還要加上另一層內容,即意識載入,此時它才具有生長裂變的活力,沒有動力,生命不能成長。

 

因此,依照佛经应这样定义载有神识的受精卵: Buddhist sutras defines kalala as a zygote with consciousness: 因此,依照佛經應這樣定義載有神識的受精卵:

 

羯罗蓝身=神识+父精+母卵 kalala body = consciousness + father’s sperm + mother’s egg 羯羅藍身=神識+父精+母卵

 

羯罗蓝身虽为生命的起点,究其成份是由各种内在物质和外在条件共同促成的综合质,是由物质和意识在有机结合后产生的另外一种具有新结构和新功能的全新事物,绝不仅仅是这三个“原材料”的简单混合。 The kalala body is the starting point of a life, the sum total of organic substances animated by the spark of consciousness.

The kalala is a completely new thing that has a new construction and new function produced through the combination of organic matter and consciousness.

It is more than a simple mixture of these three “raw materials.”

羯羅藍身雖為生命的起點,究其成份是由各種內在物質和外在條件共同促成的綜合質,是由物質和意識在有機結合後產生的另外一種具有新結構和新功能的全新事物,絕不僅僅是這三個“原材料”的簡單混合。
如佛在金刚经上说:是微尘,非微尘,是名微尘。 As the Buddha says in the Diamond Sutra, “it is a micro-particle, yet not a micro-particle, called micro-particle.” 如佛在金剛經上說:是微塵,非微塵,是名微塵。
同样组成最初的受精卵羯罗蓝的各种条件既各自独立,又相互依存,彼此合和相关而成。 Likewise, the various independent conditions that compose the fertilized egg, the kalala, coexist, and so the kalala comes into being through the joining together and relationship of these conditions with each other. 同樣組成最初的受精卵羯羅藍的各種條件既各自獨立,又相互依存,彼此合和相關而成。

 

经文中有这样的比喻:好比青草上的虫子,以草叶为食而生存,但青草并不是虫体,而虫子也不是草叶。 The sutras make this example, “It is like an insect living on green grass. The insect survives by eating the grass, yet grass is not the insect’s body and the insect is not grass. 經文中有這樣的比喻:好比青草上的蟲子,以草葉為食而生存,但青草並不是蟲體,而蟲子也不是草葉。
虫子依赖草叶而有生命,且因为草的原故,虫子呈现青草的绿色。 The insect relies on the grass to live. Moreover, because of the grass the insect is green like the color of grass. 蟲子依賴草葉而有生命,且因為草的緣故,蟲子呈現青草的綠色。
同理,父精母卵就好比青草叶,而载有神识的羯罗蓝则如虫子,两者虽看似关系相近却又有质的区别,“不一也不异”,似又不是。 With the same reasoning, the father’s sperm and the mother’s egg are like the grass, and the kalala with its consciousness is like the insect. Although the two have a close relationship, there are also distinctions in their nature. They are “not one and yet not different,” resembling each other, yet not the same. 同理,父精母卵就好比青草葉,而載有神識的羯羅藍則如蟲子,兩者雖看似關係相近卻又有質的區別,“不一也不異”,似又不是。
离开青草此虫难存,离开虫子,青草不会自然生虫。 It would be hard for the insect to exist without the green grass. Yet the grass does not produce insects naturally. 離開青草此蟲難存,離開蟲子,青草不會自然生蟲。
所以,羯罗蓝是各种条件整合出来的多元体,也证实了佛教的一句惯用语“诸法因缘生”。 Hence, kalala is an organic synthesis which comes from the integration of all conditions – internal and external. This verifies a characteristic phrase in Buddhism, “All phenomena is born of causes and conditions.” 所以,羯羅藍是各種條件整合出來的多元體,也證實了佛教的一句慣用語“諸法因緣生”。

 

青草中的虫子因为青草而呈现绿色,红枣、牛粪、乳酪所生虫子,则各依其所处环境、生活条件分别呈现红枣的红色、牛粪的黄色、乳酪的白色。 Insects that thrive in grass take on its green color. Insects that thrive on red dates, cow dung, yogurt, will, depending upon the living conditions of the environment they are born into respectively take on the red color of dates, the brown of dung, and the white of yogurt. 青草中的蟲子因為青草而呈現綠色,紅棗、牛糞、乳酪所生蟲子,則各依其所處環境、生活條件分別呈現紅棗的紅色、牛糞的黃色、乳酪的白色。
羯罗蓝身,也将会因父精母卵的基因条件及神识中的先天因缘,将来成长为与父母容貌特征相似的并带有自己天生性格特征的新生命。 The kalala body, also because of genetic conditions of the fertilized egg along with the innate causes and conditions of its consciousness, will grow to have characteristic features similar to its parents but also a new life with its own innate individual character. 羯羅藍身,也將會因父精母卵的基因條件及神識中的先天因緣,將來成長為與父母容貌特徵相似的並帶有自己天生性格特徵的新生命。
这就是佛陀所讲的因缘“四譬喻”。 These are the “four analogies” of cause and conditions of which the Buddha spoke. (No. 310 大寶積經Ratnakūṭa-sūtra  (Volume 56) T11, p0328c) 這就是佛陀所講的因緣“四譬喻”。

 

 

现代科学因主客观条件的局限,常常对神识的精微物质生命无法下手展开研究,因而保持一种有意无意的回避和否认态度。 It is impossible to try to unfold and research consciousness, which is the subtle essence of material life, because of the limitations of modern science. And these limitations are the main objectives of modern science itself. As a result, science maintains an intentional and unintentional avoidance and silence on the subject of consciousness. 現代科學因主客觀條件的侷限,常常對神識的精微物質生命無法下手展開研究,因而保持一種有意無意的迴避和否認態度。
随着时代发展的需要,在倡导优生优育的特殊历史条件下,研究这一课题便显得非常有意义。 Due to the limitations brought about by new developments [one-child policy], and present conditions for initiating the bearing and rearing of better children, research on this topic is obviously very meaningful. 隨著時代發展的需要,在倡導優生優育的特殊歷史條件下,研究這一課題便顯得非常有意義。

 

在佛教看来,人的后天智力与先天智力有着极密切的关联,甚至于先天智力常起到一定的决定性作用,而盲目的现代人,只一味地倾情于后天智力的开发与强化,从佛教看来为时已晚,而且代价要大的多,效果也非常有限,更何况数不清的先天智障儿童,等出生后常令家庭社会束手无策,困惑不解,头痛都来不急,还谈什么智力开发。 From the Buddhist perspective, there is an extremely intimate correlation between a person’s acquired intelligence and innate intelligence, but innate intelligence takes precedence.

Modern people are blind to this reality.  They blindly focus on developing and strengthening acquired intelligence.

From the Buddhist perspective this is an error and a lesson learned too late, and at a great price. Working to change innate intelligence by developing acquired intelligence is very difficult. No wonder there are countless children with congenital mental retardation. After they are born the family and society are hard pressed to care for them and it is useless to talk about their intellectual development.

在佛教看來,人的後天智力與先天智力有著極密切的關聯,甚至於先天智力常起到一定的決定性作用,而盲目的現代人,只一味地傾情于後天智力的開發與強化,從佛教看來為時已晚,而且代價要大的多,效果也非常有限,更何況數不清的先天智障兒童,等出生後常令家庭社會束手無策,困惑不解,頭痛都來不急,還談什麼智力開發。
殊不知,佛教早在两千五百年前,就已对这方面有了明确的论述。 Little do they know that 2,500 years ago Buddhism already unequivocally expounded upon this. 殊不知,佛教早在兩千五百年前,就已對這方面有了明確的論述。

 

六、成长的要素 2.6 Elements for Growth 六、成長的要素

 

新生命的起点羯罗蓝身是由多种条件复合而成,在其成长的过程中,也同样离不开各种条件的支持和配合。 The starting point of a new life, the kalala, comes into being from a composite of various conditions. And in its growth process, the kalala cannot escape from the support and coordination of these conditions. 新生命的起點羯羅藍身是由多種條件複合而成,在其成長的過程中,也同樣離不開各種條件的支持和配合。

 

如同一粒新种子,我们要小心保管,不能被高温烫伤,不可被湿气沤霉,或者被虫咬伤,硬物损伤,等到适宜的季节,寻找适当的地域,选择湿润肥沃的土壤,还要有足够的光照,小心谨慎的看护与照顾,方有望生根发芽,开花结果,获得丰收。 The kalala is like a new seed. We have to nurture a seed carefully. We cannot allow a seed to be scalded by hot water, mildewed through excessive dampness, eaten by insects, or injured by hard objects, etc. When the season is right, we must plant it in moist, fertile soil. The seed must also have enough sunshine. Carefully and prudently we must tend to it to ensure that it roots and sprouts. It will produce flowers, yield fruit and be prolific if all is done well. 如同一粒新種子,我們要小心保管,不能被高溫燙傷,不可被濕氣漚霉,或者被蟲咬傷,硬物損傷,等到適宜的季節,尋找適當的地域,選擇濕潤肥沃的土壤,還要有足夠的光照,小心謹慎的看護與照顧,方有望生根發芽,開花結果,獲得豐收。
不然,其中任一环节发生差错,都会招致失败而一无所获。 Otherwise, if we make a mistake anywhere along this chain of nurturing, everything will be lost and nothing gained. 不然,其中任一環節發生差錯,都會招致失敗而一無所獲。
新生命也同样,羯罗蓝就如一颗种子,要小心翼翼收藏保管,护送其入胞中坐床保育,中途不可出现失误。 It is the same for a new life. The kalala is just like a seed. We need to cautiously store and care for it. Escort it into the womb, enthrone it there and nurture it. No mistakes can be made along the way. 新生命也同樣,羯羅藍就如一顆種子,要小心翼翼收藏保管,護送其入胞中坐床保育,中途不可出現失誤。
如佛经说,“如草上珠,朝不保暮,晨聚将来,午消散去”,这里佛用草上的露珠来比喻羯罗蓝,其脆弱程度就可想而知了。 The Buddhist sutra (《佛說父母恩重難報經》 The Buddha Speaks the Sutra: Hard to Repay a Parent’s Deep Kindness) states, “Like a pearl on a blade of grass; hard to protect from morning till dusk. It collects in the morning, yet is dispersed by noon.” The Buddha’s analogy of a drop of dew on a blade of grass helps us realize the fragility of a kalala. 如佛經說,“如草上珠,朝不保暮,晨聚將來,午消散去”,這裡佛用草上的露珠來比喻羯羅藍,其脆弱程度就可想而知了。
并非只要有羯罗蓝就一定会成长为胎儿,也不是说,只要有胚胎生长的胞宫就能出生胎儿,而是要各方面相关的有利条件统一合作,有机结合,在各种外在条件的积极促成下,中途无任何漏洞,或者即便有一些欠缺但能及时得到调解和纠正,才有望最终发育成为胎儿。 Having a kalala will not guarantee the growth of a fetus. That is to say, just because there is a womb for a fetus to grow in, a baby will not necessarily be born. A variety of interrelated, beneficial factors working in concert, with the synthesis of opportunities, under active facilitation by various external conditions are needed. Nothing can fall through the cracks along the way, or if there are some shortcomings they must be reconciled and corrected in time. Then, most likely, a fetus will finally develop. 並非只要有羯羅藍就一定會成長為胎兒,也不是說,只要有胚胎生長的胞宮就能出生胎兒,而是要各方面相關的有利條件統一合作,有機結合,在各種外在條件的積極促成下,中途無任何漏洞,或者即便有一些欠缺但能及時得到調解和糾正,才有望最終發育成為胎兒。

 

归纳起来,最初的生命主要由四种重要因素促其快速成长、发育成胎,佛教称之为四大:地大、水大、火大、风大。 It can be deduced that a life, in its initial stage, is mainly promoted by four elements for rapid growth and development into a fetus. In Buddhism these are called the Four Great Elements: earth, water, fire, and wind. 歸納起來,最初的生命主要由四種重要因素促其快速成長、發育成胎,佛教稱之為四大:地大、水大、火大、風大。

您好,四大性,指此四特有的功能,或称性质。此性与众生之本性,非同一意思。

Four Great Elements四大, the four mahā-bhūta, of which all physical substances are composed. They are:

earth地 element (Skt. prthivī dhātu), which has the basic quality of hardness and the function of protection;

water 水element (Skt. ab-dhātu), which has the function of gathering and storing wetness;

fire 火element (Skt. teja-dhātu), which is the nature of heat and has the function of warming;

wind 風element (Skt. vāyū-dhātu), which has the function of giving motion to all living things; motion produces and maintains life.

[excerpt from Charles Muller; source(s): Yokoi, Hirakawa, JEBD]

 

地大,构成生命的固体物质,即坚实的形体和完善的生理结构等类,如筋骨、肌肉、发甲,具有支撑、维系、包裹、盛装等物理功能,佛经中称作“能持性”。 Earth makes up a life’s solid material, which is an ample body and perfect physiological constructions such as bones and tendons, muscles, hair and nails that have the physical functions of propping up, holding together, encasing, filling, and holding. The Buddhist sutras call it the “function of support.” 地大,構成生命的固體物質,即堅實的形體和完善的生理結構等類,如筋骨、肌肉、髮甲,具有支撐、維繫、包裹、盛裝等物理功能,佛經中稱作“能持性”。

 

水大,是体内的液体部分,如血液、淋巴等,具有流动、湿润、运输等生理功能。佛经中称之为“能摄性”。 Water is the liquid part of the body such as blood, lymph, etc., that have the physical functions of flowing, moisturizing, and transporting. The Buddhist sutras call it the “function of absorption.” 水大,是體內的液體部分,如血液、淋巴等,具有流動、濕潤、運輸等生理功能。佛經中稱之為“能攝性”。

 

火大,指体内与温度有关的功能,主要指体温,热量等具有保暖、温热等功能,佛经称之为“能熟性”。 Fire refers to functions related to internal heat mainly referring to body heat, energy and other functions of maintaining body heat and hyperthermia. The Buddhist sutras call it the “function of ripening.” 火大,指體內與溫度有關的功能,主要指體溫,熱量等具有保暖、溫熱等功能,佛經稱之為“能熟性”。

 

风大,指体内物质的能动性和气态物质,如心跳、气息,肌肉收缩、胃肠蠕动等,经文中称之为“能长性”。 Wind refers to internal substances moving such as the heart beating, muscle contractions, gastrointestinal peristalsis, and gaseous substances such as breathing, among other things. The sutras call it the “function of growing.” 風大,指體內物質的能動性和氣態物質,如心跳、氣息,肌肉收縮、胃腸蠕動等,經文中稱之為“能長性”。

 

正常情况下,这四种要素之间紧密相关,相互作用,缺一不可。 Under normal circumstances, these four elements are closely related. They mutually interact and all are indispensable. 正常情況下,這四種要素之間緊密相關,相互作用,缺一不可。
如果只有地大的物质结构,而无湿润功能的水大配合,对羯罗蓝来说,这个生命体将变得干燥,失去活力,各组织将因此萎缩独立起来,经文中比喻为就像用手握着的一把干面粉,无论如何也不能成为一个整体; If there is only the physical construction of the earth element and there is no absorption of the water element to match it, the living body of the kalala will dry up. It will lose its life force. Each element’s structure will deteriorate and not congeal. The analogy of this in the sutras is like having a handful of dry flour. No matter how much you knead it, without water, it will never shape into dough. 如果只有地大的物質結構,而無濕潤功能的水大配合,對羯羅藍來說,這個生命體將變得乾燥,失去活力,各組織將因此萎縮獨立起來,經文中比喻為就像用手握著的一把乾麵粉,無論如何也不能成為一個整體;
同样如果只有水大的湿性而无地大的坚性,水大便会流失离散,如将油滴在水上一样,四下散开,互不相干。 Similarly, if you only have the moisture of water and no structure from the earth element, the water element would just flow away like dripping oil into water. It will flow in all directions forming into nothing. 同樣如果只有水大的濕性而無地大的堅性,水大便會流失離散,如將油滴在水上一樣,四下散開,互不相干。
所以地大与水大关系十分密切,因水大的缘故,地大不会萎缩独立,因地大的缘故,水大不会流失分散。 And so the relationship between the earth element and the water element is very intimate. Because of the water element earth will not deteriorate. Because of the earth element water will not flow away and disperse. 所以地大與水大關係十分密切,因水大的緣故,地大不會萎縮獨立,因地大的緣故,水大不會流失分散。

 

同样,若无火大的熟性,地大就会腐烂坏死,如同夏天阴暗不通风处的肉团一样,将会很快变质分解。 Similarly, if there is no warmth from the fire element, the earth element would just die and decay. It would be like a lump of meat during the summer in a dark place with no ventilation. It would soon decompose. 同樣,若無火大的熟性,地大就會腐爛壞死,如同夏天陰暗不通風處的肉團一樣,將會很快變質分解。
而羯罗蓝如无风大,就不能生长变化,类似于吹糖人一样,如鼓动气流,则内部才会膨胀,形成内部的莲藕般的半中空状态,增大体积并具有各种生理功能。 And a kalala without the wind element could not grow and change. It would be like a blown-up sugar doll that can only inflate when air is stirred up [this is an ancient analogy, similar to today’s plastic but inedible toys]. Many physiological functions need to take place for a lotus rhizome to grow to its half-hollow state. 而羯羅藍如無風大,就不能生長變化,類似於吹糖人一樣,如鼓動氣流,則內部才會膨脹,形成內部的蓮藕般的半中空狀態,增大體積並具有各種生理功能。
因此,生命的成长过程是一个复杂的多因素共同作用的过程,其复杂程度,令人惊叹! And so, the process of life growing is a complicated, multi-factored, synergic progression. Its complexity marvels us. 因此,生命的成長過程是一個複雜的多因素共同作用的過程,其複雜程度,令人驚歎!

 

 

七、入胎便有思维 2.7  There is Thinking when It Enters 七、入胎便有思維

 

从表面讲,羯罗蓝身虽然只是一种具有活性的细胞,现代科学无论如何也不会承认其有意识行为,但佛经中却早已明确告诉我们,羯罗蓝身并不是一个呆裸裸没感情的单细胞,从一开始入胎它即具有两大生命成分:一是实质生命部分;二是作为人的意识活动功能部分。 Modern science does not acknowledge that the kalala has a conscious thinking process since superficially speaking its body is only a living cell. Long ago, though, the Buddhist sutras explicitly told us that the kalala is not an empty, blank cell without feelings. From the moment it comes into being the kalala has two important life components: one is the life essence (sperm and egg); the other is the mental faculty of consciousness (from a bardo) that cause it to become a human. 從表面講,羯羅藍身雖然只是一種具有活性的細胞,現代科學無論如何也不會承認其有意識行為,但佛經中卻早已明確告訴我們,羯羅藍身並不是一個呆裸裸沒感情的單細胞,從一開始入胎它即具有兩大生命成分:一是實質生命部分;二是作為人的意識活動功能部分。

 

“父母不净成羯罗蓝,号之为色、受、想、行、识,即是其名,说为名色”,此处,色即生命的原点羯罗蓝身的有形物质,受、想、行、识为无形的意识功能,因只有其功能和名称,而无实质,故佛教称之为“名”,两者合称为“名色”,也指羯罗蓝身的两大构成部分,或者称为“身根”和“意根”。 The parents bring about the kalala’s body which in Buddhism is called the “form aggregate.” Besides a physical body, the kalala also possesses sensations, mental images, impulses, and consciousness. In its entirety it is called “name and form.” Here, form means the physical substance of the origin of a life, the kalala body.  Sensations, mental images, impulses, and consciousness are the imperceptible mental functions. Because these are only mental functions with no substance, Buddhism calls them name. Together these two important components that make up a living being, the kalala, are called “name and form.” They are also called “body root” and “consciousness root.” “父母不淨成羯羅藍,號之為色、受、想、行、識,即是其名,說為名色”,此處,色即生命的原點羯羅藍身的有形物質,受、想、行、識為無形的意識功能,因只有其功能和名稱,而無實質,故佛教稱之為“名”,兩者合稱為“名色”,也指羯羅藍身的兩大構成部分,或者稱為“身根”和“意根”。

name and form  名色The term ‘name and form’ in Buddhism, refers to mind and body, or psycho-physical existence (Skt. nāma-rūpa). It is interpreted as the five aggregates 五蘊 , i.e., a ‘body,’ with sensation , mental images , impulse , and consciousness being the ‘name’ and the body, rūpa  the ‘form’; the first-named is material and the last four are mental. Rūpa is described as the minutest particle of matter, that which has resistance; the embryonic body or fetus is a nāmarūpa. [excerpt from Charles Muller, Stephen Hodge; source(s): Yokoi]

我们已经知道,胎儿先天的中阴生命原本就有意识,在进入精血复合体的瞬间,会感到一阵特有的“俱生喜”,这种感觉名为“受”,虽受此喜乐,而其意识总以为所排出的精或血是自己的,此即为“想”; We already know that the congenital bardo of an embryo has consciousness. The instant it enters the composite of sperm and egg it has a certain “natural delight of birth” sensation. This feeling would be called “sensation aggregate.” As it is sensing this delight, its consciousness thinks the discharged sperm and egg are itself. This thought is “image aggregate.” 我們已經知道,胎兒先天的中陰生命原本就有意識,在進入精血複合體的瞬間,會感到一陣特有的“俱生喜”,這種感覺名為“受”,雖受此喜樂,而其意識總以為所排出的精或血是自己的,此即為“想”;
秉此妄想,贪爱之心尤难割舍,便自主投入其中,这就是“行”; Grasping onto this delusion is a mind of greedy love that is particularly difficult to let go of and the bardo of its own impulse wants to join. This is “impulse aggregate.” 秉此妄想,貪愛之心尤難割捨,便自主投入其中,這就是“行”;
进入其中,神识也因此封存在内,出来不得,并以此作为自己的栖身之处,就成为“识”,五者合起来在佛教称作“五蕴”或“五阴”。 Because of this impulse, the bardo consciousness enters and becomes sealed in the fertilized egg. It cannot get out and this becomes the residence of the “consciousness aggregate.” These five – form, sensations, images, impulse, and consciousness – join together into what is called the “Five Aggregates” or “Five Skandas” in Buddhism. 進入其中,神識也因此封存在內,出來不得,並以此作為自己的棲身之處,就成為“識”,五者合起來在佛教稱作“五蘊”或“五陰”。

 

五蕴Five Skandas  (five aggregates) ‘Skandha’   means “accumulation.” The collection of the five compositional elements of our existence. The five skandhas are the division of matter and mind into five categories, which are form, sensations, images, impulses and consciousness. “Form” (rūpa) is matter in general, the body or materiality. “Sensations” (vedanā) is receptive or sensory function. “Images” (saṃjñā) refers to images that surface in the mind. “Impulse” (saṃskāra) is will, intention, or the mental function that accounts for craving. It is also understood as all of the general mental functions not included in the skandhas of feeling or perception. “Consciousness” (vijñāna) is the cognitive, or discriminating function – knowing through discrimination (Skt. Pañca-skandha). The first is physical, the other four mental qualities are associated with mental functioning. (Skt. Skandha-pañcaka,) [Excerpt from Charles Muller; source(s): JEBD, Soothill, Hirakawa, Ybh-Ind, Yokoi]

 

由于羯罗蓝身尚无眼、耳、鼻、舌、身等感觉器官,故对外来的色(图像)、声(声音)、香(气味)、味(味道)还不具备感知能力,唯有其意识活动孤灵独耀,只是不能通过声音语言或肢体行为表现出来,但却可通过心灵感应的方式和母亲及其他亲人在默默中相互“感通”。 As the kalala does not as yet have the sense organs – eyes, ears, a nose, tongue, body, etc. –  it does not yet possess the ability to perceive external objects, sounds, smells and tastes.  All it has are its own consciousness activities (from collections of past life images) like a solitary star twinkling all alone. It cannot express anything by making sounds or through language or physical motions. But through its mental telepathy with its mother and close relatives is has a quiet “rapport.” 由於羯羅藍身尚無眼、耳、鼻、舌、身等感覺器官,故對外來的色(圖像)、聲(聲音)、香(氣味)、味(味道)還不具備感知能力,唯有其意識活動孤靈獨耀,只是不能通過聲音語言或肢體行為表現出來,但卻可通過心靈感應的方式和母親及其他親人在默默中相互“感通”。

 

这种仅靠心灵感应互相传递信息的方式,相当于现代人所说的“第六感觉”。 This method of merely relying on mental telepathy to mutually transmit information, is equivalent to what today is called the “sixth sense.” 這種僅靠心靈感應互相傳遞信息的方式,相當於現代人所說的“第六感覺”。
这种无形的信息感通,有时表现为“胎梦”,有时则直接显现在孕妇的性格、思维和行为上。 This imperceptible information rapport is sometimes expressed in “pregnancy dreams,” and sometimes directly manifests in a pregnant woman’s disposition, thoughts and behavior. 這種無形的信息感通,有時表現為“胎夢”,有時則直接顯現在孕婦的性格、思維和行為上。

 

八、母子间的相互感通 2.8  The Mutual Resonance between Mother and Embryo 八、母子間的相互感通

 

     常言道“母子心相通”。 A common Chinese saying goes, “A Mother and her child’s minds are connected. 常言道“母子心相通”。
的确,因羯罗蓝身刚从中阴世界投胎过来,在一定时间内,中阴身所本具的“他心通”感应能力还是较强的,甚至于可能改变母亲的性格。 Indeed, at that specific moment when a kalala, newly arrived from the bardo world, is born into the mother’s womb, the bardo’s telepathic powers “to read the minds of others” are rather strong. These telepathic powers can even change their mother’s character. 的確,因羯羅藍身剛從中陰世界投胎過來,在一定時間內,中陰身所本具的“他心通”感應能力還是較強的,甚至於可能改變母親的性格。

他心通to read the minds of others (Skt. cetaḥ paryāya-jñāna),  Super normal ability to read the minds of others; one of the six super normal powers.〔瑜伽論 T 1579.30.494c19〕 [exerpt from Charles Muller]

如据《贤愚经》记载,弥勒菩萨的母亲在怀胎时明显一反常态,“其怪异常,其母素性不能良善(本性不良善),怀妊已来,悲矜苦厄(同情受苦的人),慈润黎元(关心老百姓),等心护养”。后来相师告诉他的父亲,“此是儿志!因为立字,号曰‘弥勒’”。因“弥勒菩萨为成就众生,由初发心即不食肉”的缘故。 As the Damamūka-nidāna-sūtra records, when Bodhisattva Maitreya’s mother was pregnant with him, “She became strange and different from normal; his mother usually was not a good or caring person, but once pregnant she became kind. She was compassionate and sympathetic toward those suffering and in hardship, and helped them.  Later, a fortune teller told Maitreya’s father, “This is the personality of your son! And so you may call him ‘Maitreya’ (Compassionate One).” From the very beginning Maitreya practiced liberating all sentient beings from suffering. He vowed never to eat meat. 如據《賢愚經》記載,彌勒菩薩的母親在懷胎時明顯一反常態,“其怪異常,其母素性不能良善(本性不良善),懷妊已來,悲矜苦厄(同情受苦的人),慈潤黎元(關心老百姓),等心護養”。後來相師告訴他的父親,“此是兒志!因為立字,號曰‘彌勒’”。因“彌勒菩薩為成就眾生,由初發心即不食肉”的緣故。

 

 

     虽然胎儿的意识活动和成人的意识活动在功能上没有多少差别,但在内容上却有较大的不同。      Although there is little difference between the mental activities of an embryo and an adult, in content there is a big difference. 雖然胎兒的意識活動和成人的意識活動在功能上沒有多少差別,但在內容上卻有較大的不同。
成人的思维可能会较多的盘计金钱、爱情、地位,而胎儿的意识则可能会更多的集中在住胎的舒适度、安全度等方面。 An adult may think more about money, love relationships, and position. Whereas an embryo may think more about the level of comfort and security in the womb. 成人的思維可能會較多的盤計金錢、愛情、地位,而胎兒的意識則可能會更多的集中在住胎的舒適度、安全度等方面。
两者有一个共同点,那就是两者的思维都是在念念迁变不息,刹那刹那不曾间断的,佛教称之为“妄念相续”,这也是未经过修行的所有众生的共同特征。 These two do have one thing in common though. When it comes to thoughts, both have thoughts that are never-ending, constantly changing, and instantaneously arising uninterrupted. Buddhism calls this, “continuous illusion.”  It is a common characteristic of the minds of all sentient beings that do not practice self-development. 兩者有一個共同點,那就是兩者的思維都是在念念遷變不息,刹那刹那不曾間斷的,佛教稱之為“妄念相續”,這也是未經過修行的所有眾生的共同特徵。

 

     不过因人而异,胎儿的先天素质不同,其意识活动的内容、频率、影响力也不尽相同。      Nevertheless, the content and frequency of the embryo’s mental activity and its impact on its mother and others is also different because each embryo has its own unique, innate qualities.      不過因人而異,胎兒的先天素質不同,其意識活動的內容、頻率、影響力也不盡相同。
同样,孕妇个人思维的灵敏度,意识的清净程度、精细度不同,对胎儿的意识活动的感知能力也会有所不同。 At the same time, the sensitivity of each pregnant woman’s thinking process and the level of the purity and refinement of her awareness are different. For this reason, the power of each pregnant woman’s perception of her embryo’s mental activity will differ. 同樣,孕婦個人思維的靈敏度,意識的清淨程度、精細度不同,對胎兒的意識活動的感知能力也會有所不同。
对于一般人来说,入睡状态下,意识活跃度较低,心意较静,往往可以感通并察觉胎儿的思想意识,但在传感过程中,又多受母亲潜意识中固有思维的干扰而失真,等最后“翻译”过来后,就会变成奇奇怪怪甚至荒诞不经的闹剧,待醒来后,往往会被人付之一笑而忽略不信,这大概就是胎梦亦真亦假,似是而非的缘故吧! When the average person sleeps, the level of their mental activity is lower, intent is quieter. In most cases a pregnant woman can have a rapport with her embryo and perceive what it is thinking and what it is aware of while she is asleep. But the mother’s inherent subconscious will cause alterations and distortions of what she picks up from the embryo during the mental telepathy process. After awaking, what finally had been “translated” by the mother can appear to be strange, even an absurd comedy that may cause the awakened mother to just laugh it off and ignore it. This is why the truth or untruth behind pregnancy dreams are such a paradox. 對於一般人來說,入睡狀態下,意識活躍度較低,心意較靜,往往可以感通並察覺胎兒的思想意識,但在傳感過程中,又多受母親潛意識中固有思維的干擾而失真,等最後“翻譯”過來後,就會變成奇奇怪怪甚至荒誕不經的鬧劇,待醒來後,往往會被人付之一笑而忽略不信,這大概就是胎夢亦真亦假,似是而非的緣故吧!

 

在佛教,佛祖的母亲摩耶夫人就曾梦到六牙白象,被认为是诞生贵子的吉梦,随后生下悉达多太子,即后来的释迦牟尼佛。 The Buddha’s mother, Queen Māyā, dreamed of a six tusked white elephant when she was pregnant. This was believed to be an auspicious dream meaning that a precious son was going to be born to her. Soon afterwards Prince Siddhartha was born. He went on to become Shakyamuni Buddha. 在佛教,佛祖的母親摩耶夫人就曾夢到六牙白象,被認為是誕生貴子的吉夢,隨後生下悉達多太子,即後來的釋迦牟尼佛。
中国的圣人孔子,

据说其母也曾梦到一只麒麟而生下孔子的。

It is said that the mother of the Chinese sage Confucius, also had a dream and it was about a Qilin (an auspicious mythical Chinese animal). 中國的聖人孔子,

據說其母也曾夢到一隻麒麟而生下孔子的。

故胎梦一事,常常因为寓意不直观,令人捉摸不透,因而让人半信半疑。 Pregnancy dreams are ambiguous and not direct. Because of this, mothers do not know whether to believe in them or not. 故胎夢一事,常常因為寓意不直觀,令人捉摸不透,因而讓人半信半疑。

 

    尽管如此,依据经验,有心的人还是将胎梦解析出来,藉此来推断胎儿的一些特征,也不无道理。      Be that as it may, there are those who can deduce some of the future child’s characteristics through serious analysis of pregnancy dreams. 儘管如此,依據經驗,有心的人還是將胎夢解析出來,藉此來推斷胎兒的一些特徵,也不無道理。

 

胎梦举例 Examples of Pregnancy dreams from Chinese Tradition 胎夢舉例

 

暗示生儿子的胎梦: Pregnancy dreams which imply the birth of a son: 暗示生兒子的胎夢:

                                      

梦见龙,预示将来出生的儿子能够成为大人物。 Dreaming of a dragon predicts the birth of a son who can become a powerful person. 夢見龍,預示將來出生的兒子能夠成為大人物。
梦见龙头,预示生下的儿子不但长相好,将来还会成就一番伟业。 Dreaming of a dragon’s head predicts the birth of a son who is not only good-looking but will also become successful in a specialized field. 夢見龍頭,預示生下的兒子不但長相好,將來還會成就一番偉業。
梦见老虎,是将来会生出堂堂正正、勇猛儿子的征兆。 Dreaming of a tiger is a sign that a son who is dignified, imposing, bold and powerful is going to be born. 夢見老虎,是將來會生出堂堂正正、勇猛兒子的徵兆。
梦见骑仙鹤在天空中飞翔,会生下高贵且虚怀若谷的儿子。 Dreaming of riding a red-crowned crane as it flies through the sky is a sign that a son who is noble yet humble and tolerant (all-embracing), will be born. 夢見騎仙鶴在天空中飛翔,會生下高貴且虛懷若谷的兒子。
梦见海龟,意味着将来出生的儿子,会有很大的权势。 Dreaming of a sea turtle implies that the son to be born will have power and influence. 夢見海龜,意味著將來出生的兒子,會有很大的權勢。
梦见猪,暗示财和福,还暗示将来生下的孩子多财多福。 Dreaming of a pig hints at a wealthy and fortunate son being born. 夢見豬,暗示財和福,還暗示將來生下的孩子多財多福。
黑猪暗示生儿子,白猪暗示生女儿。 Dreaming of a black pig signifies a son, a white pig hints at a daughter. 黑豬暗示生兒子,白豬暗示生女兒。
梦见公牛,意味着将来会生下特别孝顺的儿子。 Dreaming of a bull predicts the future birth of a filial son. 夢見公牛,意味著將來會生下特別孝順的兒子。

 

暗示生女儿的胎梦: Pregnancy dreams from Chinese tradition which imply the birth of a daughter : 暗示生女兒的胎夢:

 

梦见龙尾或摸到龙尾,是生下漂亮女儿的征兆。 Dreaming of the tail of a dragon or touching the tail of a dragon is the sign of a pretty daughter being born. 夢見龍尾或摸到龍尾,是生下漂亮女兒的徵兆。
梦见鲤鱼,表示将生下才艺高超、美丽、智慧的女儿。 Dreaming of a carp shows that a superbly talented, beautiful, and intelligent daughter will be born. 夢見鯉魚,表示將生下才藝高超、美麗、智慧的女兒。
梦见母牛或温顺的牛,暗示要生女儿。 Dreaming of a cow or a gentle ox hints that a daughter will be born. 夢見母牛或溫順的牛,暗示要生女兒。
梦见牛犊跟随身后,预示会生下伶俐可人的女儿。 Dreaming of a calf following you predicts that you will have a lively, clever daughter, loved by all. 夢見牛犢跟隨身後,預示會生下伶俐可人的女兒。
梦见蝴蝶或蝴蝶翩翩起舞,表示生女儿。 Dreaming of a butterfly fluttering about shows the birth of a daughter. 夢見蝴蝶或蝴蝶翩翩起舞,表示生女兒。
鸳鸯暗示会生漂亮的女儿。 Mandarin ducks hint at the birth of a pretty daughter. 鴛鴦暗示會生漂亮的女兒。
鲜花盛开的梦或站在花丛的梦,暗示将来生下漂亮可爱的女儿。 Dreams of fresh flowers in bloom or standing amongst clumps of flowers hint at the birth of a pretty and cute daughter in the future. 鮮花盛開的夢或站在花叢的夢,暗示將來生下漂亮可愛的女兒。

 

总体说来,胎儿的意识感通能力比其母要强些,越是入胎初期,这种能力越强,他们对母亲的思维活动几乎能十分精确地探知,并随之产生自己的意识反应,即前面所提到的“受、想、行、识”。      By and large, an embryo’s mental telepathy is somewhat stronger than that of its mother. The earlier the embryotic stage the stronger this power will be. Such an embryo can fully and precisely detect the mother’s mental activities. Moreover, it can produce it’s own mental response simultaneously. This is what was mentioned before as “sensations, mental images, impulses, and consciousness.” 總體說來,胎兒的意識感通能力比其母要強些,越是入胎初期,這種能力越強,他們對母親的思維活動幾乎能十分精確地探知,並隨之產生自己的意識反應,即前面所提到的“受、想、行、識”。
只是这里的“受”不是神经感受,而是纯意识的“第六感觉”的灵知。 It is just that here, “sensation,” is not the feelings of the senses but the gnosis (insight) of “sixth sense” pure consciousness. 只是這裡的“受”不是神經感受,而是純意識的“第六感覺”的靈知。

 

附录一

一则母子相感的实例

Appendix 2.a

An Example of  Mental Telepathy between

Mother and Embryo

附錄一

一則母子相感的實例

 

事情发生在1987年。 This event took place in 1987. 事情發生在1987年。

 

台湾屏东县的林美惠女士,婚后已生有两女,再怀第三、第四胎时,因为害怕又生女儿,就把胎儿拿掉了。 Ms. Mei-hui Lin of Taiwan’s Pingtung County had two daughters after her marriage. She aborted her third and fourth pregnancies because she wanted a boy and was afraid of having another daughter. 臺灣屏東縣的林美惠女士,婚後已生有兩女,再懷第三、第四胎時,因為害怕又生女兒,就把胎兒拿掉了。
到了十一月,她再一次怀孕,就和丈夫商定,等他有空,就去妇产科拿掉肚里的胎儿。 November of that year, she fell pregnant again. After consulting with her husband, they decided that once he was free, they would go to obstetrics and abort the embryo she was carrying. 到了十一月,她再一次懷孕,就和丈夫商定,等他有空,就去婦產科拿掉肚裡的胎兒。
做这个决定的当晚,她不知不觉做了一个梦,不同于以往模糊的梦,这个梦很清晰。 The night her decision was made she unsuspectingly had a dream. This dream was very clear, unlike the vague dreams she had in the past. 做這個決定的當晚,她不知不覺做了一個夢,不同於以往模糊的夢,這個夢很清晰。
在梦中,她看到天空放出一望无际白色的大光明,她非常欢喜。 She dreamt that a great boundless light appeared in the sky. It made her feel very happy. 在夢中,她看到天空放出一望無際白色的大光明,她非常歡喜。
这时耳边忽然响起小孩的声音:“妈妈!求求你留下我好不好?” Suddenly she heard the voice of a child saying right into her ear, “Mother! I beg you to let me stay, okay?” 這時耳邊忽然響起小孩的聲音:“媽媽!求求你留下我好不好?”
声音很细柔、很好听,可是她无心去欣赏这样好听的声音,脱口就说:“不行啦,万一又是女儿怎么办?” The voice was very gentle and soft. It had a nice sound to it, but she was in no mood to enjoy it. Instead she blurted out, “No way! What if you’re another girl?” 聲音很細柔、很好聽,可是她無心去欣賞這樣好聽的聲音,脫口就說:“不行啦,萬一又是女兒怎麼辦?”
小孩继续求着:“妈妈!求求你留下我好不好?我会很乖很乖的啦。” The child continued to beg, “Mother! I beg you to let me stay, okay? I will be very, very good.” 小孩繼續求著:“媽媽!求求你留下我好不好?我會很乖很乖的啦。”
她仍然拒绝:“不行啦,万一又生到女儿怎么办?” Still she refused, “No, what would I do if I have another girl?” 她仍然拒絕:“不行啦,萬一又生到女兒怎麼辦?”
结果声音消失,她就醒过来了。 Finally the voice faded away and she woke up. 結果聲音消失,她就醒過來了。

 

当时她并不在意这个梦兆,仍旧照常上班下班。 At that time she paid no attention to the dream omen and as usual she went to work, came home, etc. 當時她並不在意這個夢兆,仍舊照常上班下班。
奇怪的是,晚上又做了同样的梦,又响起轻柔的声音:“妈妈!求求您留下我好不好,我会很乖很乖的啦。” The strange thing is that she had the same dream with the soft and gentle voice again, “Mama! I beg of you, keep me. I will be very, very good.” 奇怪的是,晚上又做了同樣的夢,又響起輕柔的聲音:“媽媽!求求您留下我好不好,我會很乖很乖的啦。”
非常诚恳的乞求,但她依然拒绝:“不行啦,万一又是个女儿怎么办?” It sincerely implored her. But she none the less refused, “No, what would I do if you are another girl?” 非常誠懇的乞求,但她依然拒絕:“不行啦,萬一又是個女兒怎麼辦?”
相同的梦境大约持续七天左右,小孩总是在请求得不到回应后,消失于梦中。 She continued to have the same dream for about six nights. The child never got the response it wanted and it disappeared along with the dream. 相同的夢境大約持續七天左右,小孩總是在請求得不到回應後,消失於夢中。
当时梦中清楚地觉得是两个人在对话,但又感觉好像自言自语似的。 The dream seemed as if it were a conversation between two people, but then again it seemed as if she were talking to herself. 當時夢中清楚地覺得是兩個人在對話,但又感覺好像自言自語似的。

 

第七天晚上梦中,小孩又来了,仍然很诚恳地祈求留下她,而且是不断反复请求,林女士也是反复地拒绝,最后一次小孩说:“妈妈!求求你留下我,我会很乖很乖的啦,我跟两个姐姐不一样喔!” On the seventh night the dream of the child came again, sincerely begging her, over and over to keep it and over and over again Ms. Lin refused. But the last time it beseeched her the child said, “Mother! I beg you to keep me. I will be so good. I am different from my two sisters!” 第七天晚上夢中,小孩又來了,仍然很誠懇地祈求留下她,而且是不斷反復請求,林女士也是反復地拒絕,最後一次小孩說:“媽媽!求求你留下我,我會很乖很乖的啦,我跟兩個姐姐不一樣喔!”
说完之后,不等回答,小孩就不再理她,直接消失于梦中,她也随即醒来。 So saying, and without waiting for her to respond, the child left her alone. The dream disappeared and Ms. Lin woke up. 說完之後,不等回答,小孩就不再理她,直接消失於夢中,她也隨即醒來。

 

林女士做梦之后,就和丈夫商量,考虑到这次梦境很特别,连续一个礼拜小孩一直这样祈求,而且还说和两个姐姐不一样,他们认为应该是个男孩,就决定把孩子留下。 After Ms. Lin had this dream, she discussed it with her husband taking into consideration that this dream was special. The child begged her the way it had for a week, but this time it said that it was different from its sisters. To the parents it meant this was probably a boy. They decided to keep the child. 林女士做夢之後,就和丈夫商量,考慮到這次夢境很特別,連續一個禮拜小孩一直這樣祈求,而且還說和兩個姐姐不一樣,他們認為應該是個男孩,就決定把孩子留下。
后来生下来还是个女孩。 In the end she gave birth to a girl again. 後來生下來還是個女孩。
但孩子从小就很善良,很聪明,很懂事,幼小的心灵就知道慈爱众生。 But this child was so kind, intelligent, and thoughtful from the very beginning. This little girl was compassionate and loving to all beings. 但孩子從小就很善良,很聰明,很懂事,幼小的心靈就知道慈愛眾生。
在她三岁那年,农历除夕在婆婆家过年时,婆婆正忙着杀鸡,她把小脸挨过去问婆婆干什么,婆婆说:“我在杀鸡,拜过之后,挑最大的鸡腿给你吃。” When the child was three years old she was at her grandma’s house for Chinese New Year’s Eve. As her grandma was busy killing chickens, the little girl pressed her cheek to grandma’s and asked her what she was doing. Her grandma said, “I’m killing chickens. After we offer them to the gods I will save the biggest drum stick just for you.” 在她三歲那年,農曆除夕在婆婆家過年時,婆婆正忙著殺雞,她把小臉挨過去問婆婆幹什麼,婆婆說:“我在殺雞,拜過之後,挑最大的雞腿給你吃。”
孩子听了竟然板起面孔,一只小手叉着腰,大声说:“你们杀鸡鸡,以后鸡鸡就找你们算帐。” Hearing this the little girl pulled a long face and with one hand on her hip she said in a loud voice, “You kill these chickens and some day they will come to get even with you.” 孩子聽了竟然板起面孔,一隻小手叉著腰,大聲說:“你們殺雞雞,以後雞雞就找你們算帳。”
大家听后非常惊讶。 Everyone was shocked to hear it. 大家聽後非常驚訝。

 

 

 

 

 

 

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