Auspicious Birth — Part III

I hope that my regular readers are enjoying this series about bardo, the “transitional” state between lives. As you know, I am reprinting it with permission from a scholarly work entitled Auspicious Birth by Master Shi Zhiguo, a contemporary Chinese monk.

For authenticity, as well as for the convenience of any subscribers who read Chinese, I am including the Chinese source as well as the English translation.

If you are a new reader…welcome! Please take some time to read the previous posts in the series — Auspicious Birth — PrefaceAuspicious Birth — Part I and Auspicious Birth — Part II — for background and context before you read the entry below.

第三章

胎儿的历程

Chapter Three

Progress of the Fetus

第三章

胎兒的歷程

一、

三十八周的成长

3.1 Thirty-Eight Week Growth 一、

三十八週的成長

 

佛经中对胎儿在母腹中成长三十八周的经历有很详尽的记述,最为可贵的是,佛经的描述不仅包含了现代医学生理方面的内容,更有许多现代科学尚未涉及的胎儿心灵世界的内容。 The Buddhist sutras give a detailed account of the 38 weeks the fetus is in its mother’s womb. This account is extraordinary in that it describes not only the physiology as reflected in modern science, but also the world of the fetus’ mind, which modern science has not yet been able to address . 佛經中對胎兒在母腹中成長三十八週的經歷有很詳盡的記述,最為可貴的是,佛經的描述不僅包含了現代醫學生理方面的內容,更有許多現代科學尚未涉及的胎兒心靈世界的內容。

 

佛经不仅讲述了胎儿生理结构的变化,还为我们预知了早期胎儿的心理感受,这将引导我们深入地认识和研究这一科学领域,帮助我们更早、更全面、更真实地掌握胎儿的各方面信息,拓宽了视野,并且指导我们为培育出新一代天赋优越,德、智、体全面发展的下一代,取长补短,优化生育方案,做出一次大胆地尝试。 The sutras not only tell the story of the changes in the fetus’ physiological make-up, but also the fetus’ psychological state in its early stages of development. These insights can guide our research and deepen our understanding in this field. This information helps us master all of the information about a fetus, for a broader, more comprehensive view. Moreover, it can guide us in producing future generations that are talented and superior in health, morality and wisdom.  We can combine the best of both worlds – Buddhism and science – and put Buddhist concepts to the test scientifically . 佛經不僅講述了胎兒生理結構的變化,還為我們預知了早期胎兒的心理感受,這將引導我們深入地認識和研究這一科學領域,幫助我們更早、更全面、更真實地掌握胎兒的各方面資訊,拓寬了視野,並且指導我們為培育出新一代天賦優越,德、智、體全面發展的下一代,取長補短,優化生育方案,做出一次大膽地嘗試。

 

     第一周胎儿尤如皮肤上的一颗小疔疮,样子有点像稀粥一滴或奶酪一滴,称为羯罗蓝。 The sutras tell us that in the first week the embryo is like a minute pimple on the skin. It looks like a tiny drop of watery porridge or a drop of yogurt and is called a kalala. 第一週胎兒猶如皮膚上的一顆小疔瘡,樣子有點像稀粥一滴或乳酪一滴,稱為羯羅藍。
七天内,其体积、形状不会有太多变化,看上去几乎是静悄悄的一动不动,但其内部结构却在不断变化着,逐渐分类出四种不同的功能物质,即:地大的物质部分,水大的湿润部分,火大的暖热功能,风大的运动功能。 Within the first seven days its size will not change much. It will appear to be virtually fixed. But its internal construction is constantly changing, gradually dividing into four parts, with materials that have different functions: one part is earth material, one part moist water, another part has the warming function of fire, and the last part the movement function of the wind. 七天內,其體積、形狀不會有太多變化,看上去幾乎是靜悄悄的一動不動,但其內部結構卻在不斷變化著,逐漸分類出四種不同的功能物質,即:地大的物質部分,水大的濕潤部分,火大的暖熱功能,風大的運動功能。
这些功能物质是胎儿继续生长变化的基础要素。 These functional materials are the fundamental elements for the embryo’s continued growth. 這些功能物質是胎兒繼續生長變化的基礎要素。

 

          近似于一个五六岁小孩大小的中阴生命,一下子要压缩到如一个逗号大小的受精卵内,物质和意识混住在一起,并不好受,如佛经讲“身根及识,同居一处,壮热煎熬,极为辛苦”。 It is very uncomfortable for a bardo to adjust from imagining itself to be the size of a five or six year old child, to being compressed into a fertilized egg the size of a comma on this page. As the Buddhist sutras state, “Body and awareness cohabitate a place of intense heat, torment, and extreme suffering.” 近似於一個五六歲小孩大小的中陰生命,一下子要壓縮到如一個逗號大小的受精卵內,物質和意識混住在一起,並不好受,如佛經講“身根及識,同居一處,壯熱煎熬,極為辛苦”。

 

     此时胎儿的意识会有最明显的两种感受: At this time the embryo will have two very distinct feelings: 此時胎兒的意識會有最明顯的兩種感受:
1) 如掉入铜锅被烧煮一样灸热难熬,痛苦万状,又无可奈何。 1) A feeling of extreme pain and helplessness and unbearable heat, as if it had fallen into a copper pot and is being cooked. 1) 如掉入銅鍋被燒煮一樣灸熱難熬,痛苦萬狀,又無可奈何。
因为此时的他一旦入于此中,就无法自主也无法脱身,被一种无形的力量牢牢地缚住而不能自拔,这种无形的力量佛教称作“爱缚”。 Once it has fallen into this place, it is incapable of doing what it needs to do, and is unable to free itself from being tightly bound up by an invisible force. Buddhism calls this invisible force “bonds of love.” 因為此時的他一旦入於此中,就無法自主也無法脫身,被一種無形的力量牢牢地縛住而不能自拔,這種無形的力量佛教稱作“愛縛”。
因爱生贪,由贪入胎,由胎受困,失去自由。 This is because it was the bardo’s love that led to its attachment, and its attachment caused it to intentionally enter the womb. In the womb it is now suffering hardship and has lost its freedom. 因愛生貪,由貪入胎,由胎受困,失去自由。
② 如置身密室,拥挤,憋闷,难受,有点像人被强迫塞进瓶子里,又盖上盖,呆在里面的那种感觉,近乎窒息,困苦难受。 2) It feels like its body is stuffed into a tight chamber that is cramped, stuffy and uncomfortable. It is like being forced into a bottle with the cap on, and having to stay there suffering near suffocation. ② 如置身密室,擁擠,憋悶,難受,有點像人被強迫塞進瓶子裡,又蓋上蓋,呆在裡面的那種感覺,近乎窒息,困苦難受。
尽管不是滋味,却又无能为力,不可抗拒,人人如此,这就是生命的开端,苦乐相伴的人生就从这里拉开序幕。 For every person, life begins with all this unpleasantness, with feeling impotent and helpless in a place where resistance is useless. The curtain rises on the start of one’s bitter and sweet life with this opening scene. 儘管不是滋味,卻又無能為力,不可抗拒,人人如此,這就是生命的開端,苦樂相伴的人生就從這裡拉開序幕。

 

       第二周胎识的感受和第一周没有什么不同,身体与神识混居一体,蒸煮闷热,拘束压抑。 The second week there is no difference in the embryo’s awareness. Body and consciousness are jumbled together as one, as the fetus swelters, restricted and oppressed. 第二週胎識的感受和第一週沒有什麼不同,身體與神識混居一體,蒸煮悶熱,拘束壓抑。
但生命物质开始发生奇妙的变化。 But physical life begins to experience a marvelous change. 但生命物質開始發生奇妙的變化。

 

     首先是外观上的变化。 This change begins with its external appearance. 首先是外觀上的變化。
由先前的稀薄状态逐渐“熟化”为浓稠小泡状,样子有点像果冻或者稠酪,此时佛经将其称为“安部昙”(译为疱结泡)。 From the initial thin and watery state comes a gradual “ripening” into the shape of a thick little bubble with the consistency of gelatin or thick cream. The Buddhist sutras call this state “arbudam” (translated as “from blister to bubble.”) 由先前的稀薄狀態逐漸“熟化”為濃稠小泡狀,樣子有點像果凍或者稠酪,此時佛經將其稱為“安部曇”(譯為皰結泡)。

 

其次组成未来生命体的四种元素逐渐显现。 Next, the four materials that make up the future body gradually become apparent. 其次組成未來生命體的四種元素逐漸顯現。
其中坚硬的部分成为未来的地大,柔软湿润的部分成为未来的水大,温昀暖热的部分成为后来的火大,其中形成的空隙成为后来的风大的基础。 The earth element becomes the future rigid parts of the body. The water element becomes the future soft moist parts. The fire element becomes the later warm parts. The cavities formed between these parts later become the foundation of the wind element. 其中堅硬的部分成為未來的地大,柔軟濕潤的部分成為未來的水大,溫昀暖熱的部分成為後來的火大,其中形成的空隙成為後來的風大的基礎。

 

     第三周   在前两周的基础上,继续生长。 The third week, the embryo continues to grow, built upon its first two weeks growth. 第三週   在前兩週的基礎上,繼續生長。
此时,从母腹中能产生一股无形的细风,影响胚芽逐渐生长,好似种子发芽一样,形状变得像蚯蚓,并且地、水、火、风四种元素,也随“种子”的发芽而继续分化。 By this time, an invisible stream of fine “wind” [similar to “qi,” vital energy] is produced from the mother’s abdominal cavity. It influences the embryo’s gradual growth, like a sprouting seed as it changes into the shape of a worm. Moreover, the four elements of earth, water, fire and wind follow the sprouting of the “seed” and continue dividing. 此時,從母腹中能產生一股無形的細風,影響胚芽逐漸生長,好似種子發芽一樣,形狀變得像蚯蚓,並且地、水、火、風四種元素,也隨“種子”的發芽而繼續分化。

 

     第四周在上一周的基础上,自然又有一种无形的细风影响胎体,使之进一步增长变化,样子变得越来越不规则。 The fourth week, upon the foundation of the previous week, there naturally occurs another kind of invisible, subtle “wind” that affects the embryo, causing it to grow and change further. Its appearance becomes more irregular. 第四週在上一週的基礎上,自然又有一種無形的細風影響胎體,使之進一步增長變化,樣子變得越來越不規則。
由于内热,使其在外形上有点像发热的石头。 The embryo’s internal heat and appearance are now like a hot stone. 由於內熱,使其在外形上有點像發熱的石頭。
同时,四大也在热力作用下越来越明显了。 At the same time, under the influence of the heat’s power, the four elements become more and more distinct. 同時,四大也在熱力作用下越來越明顯了。

 

     第五周在此期间,又有一股细风影响胎体,继续生长变化,产生五部分:头、两肩、两髋。 During the fifth week, another gentle wind affects the embryo. It continues to grow and change, producing five segments: head, two shoulders, and two hips. 第五週在此期間,又有一股細風影響胎體,繼續生長變化,產生五部分:頭、兩肩、兩髖。
这股细风好似春雨普降,草木复苏,生长枝条一样。 This “wind” is like a spring rain that resuscitates grass and trees as it falls everywhere causing them to give off shoots and branches. 這股細風好似春雨普降,草木復甦,生長枝條一樣。

 

     第六周在此期间,另有一股无形的细风,影响胎体,使之长出身体的四个部分:两肘和两膝。 During the sixth week a different fine “wind” affects the embryo. It grows four more body parts: two elbows and two knees. 第六週在此期間,另有一股無形的細風,影響胎體,使之長出身體的四個部分:兩肘和兩膝。

 

     第七周在原有基础上又有增加四部分:两手、两脚。 In the seventh week, four more parts – two hands and two feet – are added to what already exists. 第七週在原有基礎上又有增加四部分:兩手、兩腳。

 

     第八周长出手足十指,犹如新雨后树木生根。 In the eighth week, the ten fingers and ten toes grow, like the roots of a tree sprouting after the first spring rain. 第八週長出手足十指,猶如新雨後樹木生根。

 

     第九周又增加九孔:两眼、两耳、两鼻、口、下二孔( 肛门,尿道)。 In the ninth week the fetus is fortified with nine orifices: two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, a mouth and two lower orifices (anus and urethra). 第九週又增加九孔:兩眼、兩耳、兩鼻、口、下二孔( 肛門,尿道)。

 

     第十周胎体更加坚实,同时受另一股细风的影响,胎体膨胀,尤如气球。 In the 10th week, the fetus’ body becomes more solid, and at the same time another fine “wind” causes it to inflate like a balloon. 第十週胎體更加堅實,同時受另一股細風的影響,胎體膨脹,猶如氣球。

 

     第十一周又有一种细风影响着胎体,使九个孔窍相互贯通。 In the 11th week another “wind” affects the fetus, causing the nine orifices to connect. 第十一週又有一種細風影響著胎體,使九個孔竅相互貫通。
如果孕母行走活动时,这种细风也会随之变大变小,或上下疏通,渐渐令胎体的各种孔窍增大。 This “wind” will increase or decrease either upward or downward in concert with mother’s walking or moving.  Gradually all the fetus’ orifices will become bigger. 如果孕母行走活動時,這種細風也會隨之變大變小,或上下疏通,漸漸令胎體的各種孔竅增大。
如是朝上运动的细风,即打通上半身的各个孔窍; If the mother moves her body upward, the subtle “wind” will open up the orifices of the upper body. 如是朝上運動的細風,即打通上半身的各個孔竅;
如是朝下运动的细风,就会打通下部的孔窍。 If the mother moves her body downward, the subtle “wind” will open up the orifices of the lower body. 如是朝下運動的細風,就會打通下部的孔竅。

 

     第十二周有另一种细风促使在胎体的两端产生消化道和大肠,样子就像放置在地上的织布线,自然形成十八个转折弯曲,容纳在胎体内。 In the 12th week a different subtle “wind” will prompt the fetus’ digestive tract and large intestines to come into being. They will look like a strand of yarn piled on the ground naturally forming 18 curves. These are packed inside the fetus. 第十二週有另一種細風促使在胎體的兩端產生消化道和大腸,樣子就像放置在地上的織布線,自然形成十八個轉折彎曲,容納在胎體內。
又在另一股细风的促使下,胎体内变现三百二十组树枝状的结构(现在认为可能是神经系统或经脉)及一百一十多个窍穴。(或许是主穴位) Prompted by another subtle “wind”, within the fetus, 320 branches of a dendritic structure (today considered to possibly refer to the nervous system or vital energy channels), along with over 110 vital energy meridian points (or the main vital energy meridian points) come into being. 又在另一股細風的促使下,胎體內變現三百二十組樹枝狀的結構(現在認為可能是神經系統或經脈)及一百一十多個竅穴。(或許是主穴位)

 

第十三周从这一周起,胎儿开始有了饥渴感,借助脐带、先天气息,母亲摄入的各种饮食滋味和营养进入胎体,得以快速成长。 Starting with the 13th week, the fetus begins to have feelings of hunger and thirst. With the help of the umbilical cord and the innate ability for oxygen exchange, everything that the mother ingests – (all food, drink, tastes, flavors and nutrition enter the fetus), enabling it to grow rapidly. 第十三週從這一週起,胎兒開始有了饑渴感,借助臍帶、先天氣息,母親攝入的各種飲食滋味和營養進入胎體,得以快速成長。

 

第十四周又有一种细风促使胎体生长出1000条筋腱,分别分布在身体的前、后、左、右四周,每侧各有250条,成为维系身体的组织结构。 In the 14th week another subtle “wind” enables the fetus to grow 1,000 tendons and sinews. These are distributed respectively throughout the left and right sides of the front of the body, and the left and right sides of the back of the body. Each of the four parts of the body will have 250 of them, forming an organized structure for holding the body together. 第十四週又有一種細風促使胎體生長出1000條筋腱,分別分佈在身體的前、後、左、右四周,每側各有250條, 成為維繫身體的組織結構。

 

          第十五周另有一种细风促使胎体生出20条经脉围绕在身体的前、后、左、右四周,每侧各有5条。 In the 15th week, another kind of subtle “wind” enables the fetus to produce 20 strands of energy channels, surrounding the front, back, left and right sides of the body. Each side will ultimately have five strands. 第十五週另有一種細風促使胎體生出20條經脈圍繞在身體的前、後、左、右四周,每側各有5條。
这些经脉不仅名号、功能各不同,颜色也各不相同,有绿色、黄色、红色、白色、奶油色以及许多混合色。 Not only are the names and functions of these channels different, but they also have different colors – green, yellow, red, white, butter colored and multicolored. 這些經脈不僅名號、功能各不同,顏色也各不相同,有綠色、黃色、紅色、白色、奶油色以及許多混合色。
每条经脉各自又有40条支脉,总数达800条之多。 Each channel will also have 40 branches, totaling as many as 800 strands. 每條經脈各自又有40條支脈,總數達800條之多。
这800条的支脉每支又分出100条络脉,总计达80000条,分布于身体四周。 These 800 strands of the branch channels again divide into 100 strands of collaterals, each totaling 80,000 strands. They are spread over the four sides of the body. 這800條的支脈每支又分出100條絡脈,總計達80000條,分佈於身體四周。
每条络脉上又分布有一个到七个数目不等的小孔,与体表的毛孔相连通, 样子就像藕根上的孔眼。 Upon each strand of the collaterals are between one and seven tiny openings. These connect upward with the pores on the surface of the body and look like the “sockets” in a lotus tuber (or holes of a shower nozzle). 每條絡脈上又分佈有一個到七個數目不等的小孔,與體表的毛孔相連通, 樣子就像藕根上的孔眼。
这一概念极相似于中国医学的经络理论:经脉分出络脉,再到孙络,再分出浮络上达皮部的毛孔。 This description is quite similar to the meridian theory in Chinese medicine: energy channels divide into energy collaterals, and divide again into tertiary collaterals, and divide again into superficial collaterals, which arrive at the pores on the skin. 這一概念極相似於中國醫學的經絡理論:經脈分出絡脈,再到孫絡,再分出浮絡上達皮部的毛孔。

 

          第十六周又有一种细风促使胎儿的两耳、两鼻、口咽、胸臆等处气息和食物的通道处归于正位,保持通畅,各司所职。 In the 16th week, there is another subtle “wind” that prompts the fetus’s two ears, two nostrils, oropharynx, chest cavity, and other areas of oxygen exchange and food passage to stabilize their positions, maintain the openings, and transfer materials among them. 第十六週又有一種細風促使胎兒的兩耳、兩鼻、口咽、胸臆等處氣息和食物的通道處歸於正位,保持通暢,各司所職。
佛经喻为尤如陶艺师取好泥安放在制坯的转轮上,随其旋转,修改器皿的口径部,令其通畅,光滑,圆润。 The Buddhist sutras explain this as being similar to a potter taking good clay, setting it firmly on the potter’s wheel, and following the spin of the wheel, modifying the mouth and neck of a vessel to become smooth and round keeping them unobstructed. 佛經喻為猶如陶藝師取好泥安放在制坯的轉輪上,隨其旋轉,修改器皿的口徑部,令其通暢,光滑,圓潤。

 

          第十七周又有一种细风促使胎儿的眼、耳、鼻、口咽、胸臆、食管等传输要道令其平整,洁净,光亮,无有障碍。 In the 17th week, there comes another subtle “wind” that prompts the circulation of passageways in the fetus’ eyes, ears, nostrils, oropharynx, chest cavity, and esophagus, etc., making them smooth, clean and polished, without impediments. 第十七週又有一種細風促使胎兒的眼、耳、鼻、口咽、胸臆、食管等傳輸要道令其平整,潔淨,光亮,無有障礙。
经文中比喻好似有人用油抹布醮草木灰或者细土去擦拭沾满尘埃的镜子一样,一时光滑油亮。 The sutras describe this as being the same as a person using a rag dipped in plant ashes or fine grains of sand to wipe clean a mirror covered with dust. In an instant it is clean and polished. 經文中比喻好似有人用油抹布醮草木灰或者細土去擦拭沾滿塵埃的鏡子一樣,一時光滑油亮。

 

          第十八周这一周是胎儿关键的一周,在这一周内,有一种细风能促使胎儿眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意六种功能发育成熟,功能齐备。 The 18th week is the crux of the fetus’ development. During this week a subtle “wind” prompts the growth of the fetus’ six organs – the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and the faculty of consciousness to mature, becoming completely functional. 第十八週這一週是胎兒關鍵的一週,在這一週內,有一種細風能促使胎兒眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意六種功能發育成熟,功能齊備。
原本“识身同根”的混沌状态从此结束,独立的六根已经形成,只是生理结构尚未完全。 The original mixed up state of “consciousness and body sharing one root,” will now come to an end. Independent functions will now form. Only the physiological structure is not yet complete. 原本“識身同根”的混沌狀態從此結束,獨立的六根已經形成,只是生理結構尚未完全。
胎儿的感性世界的形像出现了。 The world of the fetus’ senses will now manifest. 胎兒的感性世界的形像出現了。
佛经中这样比喻:好像乌云遮蔽日月,天地一时昏暗不清,忽遇一阵狂风吹来,烟消云散,刹时日月齐明,各各显现,独自成体。 The Buddhist sutras use this analogy:

It is as if dark clouds covered the sun and moon. The sky and the earth are in a dim twilight, and nothing is discernable.  Then suddenly a fierce gale blows away the clouds and the mist clears. In an instant the sun and moon are bright again. Everything  stands out clearly.

佛經中這樣比喻:好像烏雲遮蔽日月,天地一時昏暗不清,忽遇一陣狂風吹來,煙消雲散,刹時日月齊明,各各顯現,獨自成體。

 

          第十九周在此七日内,胎儿的眼、耳、鼻、舌四种器官的组织结构和生理形态进一步发育直至完备,而身根、意根、命根早在开始就已具备了。 During the seven days of the 19th week the organization of the fetus’ four organs – eyes, ears, nose, and tongue take one more step in the growth of their physiological form. The physical sensation root,  consciousness root, and life root were already complete before the growth of the four organs.     第十九週在此七日內,胎兒的眼、耳、鼻、舌四種器官的組織結構和生理形態進一步發育直至完備,而身根、意根、命根早在開始就已具備了。

 

          第二十周有另一种细风促使胎儿生长骨节,从左到右,从下而上,依次长出。 In the 20th week a different subtle “wind” prompts the fetus to grow bones and joints sequentially from the left side to the right and from the bottom to the top of the body.   第二十週有另一種細風促使胎兒生長骨節,從左到右,從下而上,依次長出。
其中两脚各有二十骨,足跟有四骨,辅有二骨,膝有二骨,髀有二骨,腰髋有三骨, The front parts of both feet will have 20 bones each; the heels will have four bones; two bones (fibular) will support the leg bones (tibia); the knees will have two bones; the thighs will have two bones; the hips, three bones; 其中兩腳各有二十骨,足跟有四骨,輔有二骨,膝有二骨,髀有二骨,腰髖有三骨,
脊有十八骨,肋有二十四骨,两手各生二十骨, the spine will have 18 bones; the ribs, 24 bones; the hands will have 20 bones; 脊有十八骨,肋有二十四骨,兩手各生二十骨,
手腕有二骨,臂有四骨, the wrists, two bones; the arms four bones; 手腕有二骨,臂有四骨,
胸有七骨,肩有七骨, the chest will have seven bones; the shoulders, seven bones; 胸有七骨,肩有七骨,
项有四骨,颔有二骨,齿有三十二骨,颅有四骨, the nape of the neck will have four bones; the chin, two bones; the teeth, 32 “seeds;” the skull, four bones. 項有四骨,頷有二骨,齒有三十二骨,顱有四骨,
不算小骨,大骨足有二百多块,算上小骨,共计有三百零六块之多。 Not counting the small bones, the fetus will have over 200 bones. If also counting the small bones, there will be 306. 不算小骨,大骨足有二百多塊,算上小骨,共計有三百零六塊之多。

 

          第二十一周胎儿主要长肌肉。 In the 21st week, the fetus will mainly grow muscle.   第二十一週胎兒主要長肌肉。
经文中有这样的比喻:譬如泥师,先调好泥,涂于墙壁。 The sutras use this analogy:

It is as if an earth plasterer first mixes the earth and then applies it to a wall.

經文中有這樣的比喻:譬如泥師,先調好泥,塗於牆壁。
从现代医学来看,胎儿的体重也于这一周内迅速增加。 From the modern medical viewpoint, during this week the fetus is rapidly gaining weight. 從現代醫學來看,胎兒的體重也於這一週內迅速增加。

 

第二十二周胎儿生血。 In the 22nd week, the fetus produces blood. 第二十二週胎兒生血。
第二十三周胎儿开始长皮。 In the 23rd week, the fetus begins to grow skin. 第二十三週胎兒開始長皮。
第二十四周胎儿的皮肤进一步完善,变得光滑细腻。 In the 24th week, the fetus’ skin is perfected, becoming smooth, with a sheen. 第二十四週胎兒的皮膚進一步完善,變得光滑細膩。
第二十五周胎儿表现为血肉丰满,肌体充实。 In the 25th week, the fetus exhibits a plump and substantially muscled body. 第二十五週胎兒表現為血肉豐滿,肌體充實。
第二十六周胎儿开始生长毛发、指甲,而且所生发甲与体内气脉相连,成为一个整体。 In the 26th week, the fetus begins to grow hair and nails. The hair and nails complete their alignment with the vital energy [qi]  points and channels within the body. 第二十六週胎兒開始生長毛髮、指甲,而且所生髮甲與體內氣脈相連,成為一個整體。

 

第二十七周胎儿的毛发、指甲发育完成。 In the 27th week, the hair and nails have completed their development. 第二十七週胎兒的毛髮、指甲發育完成。
对于小孩来说,这一周至关重要,可以说是未来形体特征、长相、智力等方面的一个转折点。 For the fetus, this is a critical time. It can be said that this is the turning point in the development of the body’s future traits, features, and intelligence. 對於小孩來說,這一週至關重要,可以說是未來形體特徵、長相、智力等方面的一個轉折點。
在此之前,所有的胎体的发育体征大致没有什么差别,在这一周,开始出现个体差异。佛经中这样描述: Before this week, roughly all fetus’ have no obvious differences in the signs of their development. From this week onward though, individual traits begin to appear. The Buddhist sutras describe it this way: 在此之前,所有的胎體的發育體徵大致沒有什麼差別,在這一週,開始出現個體差異。佛經中這樣描述:

 

 “其身相渐得成就,或于先世造诸恶业,于诸资具悭贪吝惜不肯惠施;或复不受父母师长教诲,由是业故而得种种不如意身。 “The shape of its body is gradually achieved. Bad karma created in previous lifetimes causes the body to be inauspicious [i.e. people do not like looking at it. ] This bad karma could be the result of having been greedy and miserly with possessions and not willing to benefit others or give charity, or the result of not accepting the teachings of parents, teachers or elders.  “其身相漸得成就,或於先世造諸惡業,於諸資具慳貪吝惜不肯惠施;或復不受父母師長教誨,由是業故而得種種不如意身。
若以长大、肥白、柔软之身为端正者,而便受得短小、瘦黑、坚硬之身。 If an auspicious body in that locale is considered by the people there to be a body that is tall, large, chubby, white and soft, then a body that is the result of negative karma retribution would be short and small, skinny, dark and stiff. 若以長大、肥白、柔軟之身為端正者,而便受得短小、瘦黑、堅硬之身。
若以短小、瘦黑、坚硬之身为端正者,而便受得长大、肥白、柔软之身; If an auspicious body is considered to be one that is short, small, skinny, dark and stiff, then the retribution of bad karma would cause it to be tall, large, chubby, white and soft. 若以短小、瘦黑、堅硬之身為端正者,而便受得長大、肥白、柔軟之身;
若于其身支分之中,高下、多少、疏密为端正者,而便受得无有高下疏密不具足身。 If an auspicious body is considered to be one with extremities that are a certain size, amount [like hair and teeth], or density, the bad karmic retribution would cause the body not to have that size, amount or density. 若於其身支分之中,高下、多少、疏密為端正者,而便受得無有高下疏密不具足身。
或复受得聋、盲、喑、哑,手足挛躄诸根不具,所有音声人不喜闻,其身丑陋犹如饿鬼。 The body may become deaf, blind, silent [have the mental ability to speak, but still be unable to make sounds due to, for example, having no vocal cords], mute [can make sounds, but not able to articulate speech]. They may have a voice that people find displeasing to listen to or hands, feet or limbs that may be crippled or incomplete. 或復受得聾、盲、喑、啞,手足攣躄諸根不具,所有音聲人不喜聞,其身醜陋猶如餓鬼。
以恶业故而受种种不如意身,父母亲属尚不喜见,况复余人。” The bad karma they created will cause them to have all types of inauspicious bodies. Since even their parents and family members do not take pleasure in looking at them, what about others?” 以惡業故而受種種不如意身,父母親屬尚不喜見,況復餘人。”

 

          概括起来,这段经文说明胎儿在这一周内有可能会发生三方面的改变: In summary, this part of the sutra explains that during this week there will be changes in three aspects of the fetus:   概括起來,這段經文說明胎兒在這一週內有可能會發生三方面的改變:

 

          ①形体方面的改变。由“悭贪吝惜”的原故,不肯以自己的财力、物力、人力“惠施”他人,及“不受父母师长教诲”,忤逆不孝,不敬师长,将会出现体形、容貌、智力等方面的“不如意”改变。 1)  Changes in physical shape:

“Inauspicious” changes in the fetus’ future bodies begin to form in their features, their intelligence, and other characteristics. This is because in past lives they were “greedy and miserly,” not willing to use their own finances or material resources, or their time and energy to “benefit others and give charity.” They would not “accept the teachings of parents, teachers or elders,” were disobedient, were not filial, and did not respect teachers and elders.

   ①形體方面的改變。由“慳貪吝惜”的原故,不肯以自己的財力、物力、人力“惠施”他人,及“不受父母師長教誨”,忤逆不孝,不敬師長,將會出現體形、容貌、智力等方面的“不如意”改變。

 

          本来应长一点好看的(如身高、眉毛、鼻子),反而变短; Features that could have been longer (height, eyebrows, a nose if that is what is considered attractive) instead now will become shorter;    本來應長一點好看的(如身高、眉毛、鼻子),反而變短;
本应短一点的(如下颌),反而变的不协调的长; Features that could have been shorter (the chin for example) will turn out disproportionate; 本應短一點的(如下頜),反而變的不協調的長;
本应粗点的(如大腿),反而细; What could have been broader (like the thighs), will turn out narrow; 本應粗點的(如大腿),反而細;
本应紧凑点的(如牙齿),反而变成怪异的稀疏; What could have been closer together (like teeth), will turn out crooked and have spaces; 本應緊湊點的(如牙齒),反而變成怪異的稀疏;
本应胖点(如脸颊)的,反而出奇的瘦; What could have been full and healthy (like the cheeks), will turn out unusually hollow; 本應胖點(如臉頰)的,反而出奇的瘦;
本应瘦点的(如舌头),反而奇怪的胖; What could have been thin, (like the tongue), will turn out oddly thick; 本應瘦點的(如舌頭),反而奇怪的胖;
本应多的(如毛发),反而格外的少; What could have been abundant (like hair), will turn out exceptionally sparse; 本應多的(如毛髮),反而格外的少;
本应白细的(如手指),反而变的丑黑等等,与正常情况反差很大,显得很不协调、不美观。 What could have been white and slender (like the fingers), will turn out ugly and dark.  The features will become a far cry from what is the accepted norm, appearing disproportionate and unattractive. 本應白細的(如手指),反而變的醜黑等等,與正常情況反差很大,顯得很不協調、不美觀。

 

          ②性格气质方面的改变。

“由身语意造诸不善”,并且“日夜增长”,除了影响到形体,还影响到后天的性格和气质。

2) Changes in character and disposition:

“From the unkindness caused by negative thoughts, speech and actions increasing day by day,” besides impacting physical shape, the characters and disposition of the future person will also be impacted.

②性格氣質方面的改變。

“由身語意造諸不善”,並且“日夜增長”,除了影響到形體,還影響到後天的性格和氣質。

 

          本应胆大反而怯懦,本应怯懦的反成胆大; When they should be brave, they will be cowardly, and when they should be cautious, they will be bold; 本應膽大反而怯懦,本應怯懦的反成膽大;
本应受人喜欢的,反令人讨厌。 When they should be liked by others, they will be despised. 本應受人喜歡的,反令人討厭。
由于气质较差,长相不尽人意,说话不受人喜欢,如经文上讲“所有音声,人不喜闻”,“受种种不如意身,父母亲属尚不喜见,况复余人”。 Because of their poor character, their appearance is not up to people’s standards. People do not like what they say. It is as the sutras relate, “Most people do not like to hear any sound they make.” “They have all kinds of inauspicious physical characteristics that even their own parents do not like looking at, so what about others.” 由於氣質較差,長相不盡人意,說話不受人喜歡,如經文上講“所有音聲,人不喜聞”,“受種種不如意身,父母親屬尚不喜見,況復餘人”。

 

          *③ 生理方面的改变。

“又由恶业,感得恶报”,诸如“聋、盲、喑(能说话但不能发声)、哑(能发声但不能说话),手足挛(挛缩不得伸直),躄(跛足)”“愚钝丑陋”之类的先天性残疾和智力障碍。

*3) Changes in physiology

“And from bad karma comes bad retribution,” forming innate disabilities and mental handicaps such as, “deafness, blindness, being voiceless (having the mental ability to speak, but unable to make sounds due to for example having no vocal cords), mute (able to make sounds, but not able to articulate speech), crippled hands or feet (unable to straighten them), lame…”, “…dull-witted and ugly.”

③ 生理方面的改變。

“又由惡業,感得惡報”,諸如“聾、盲、喑(能說話但不能發聲)、啞(能發聲但不能說話),手足攣(攣縮不得伸直),躄(跛足)”“愚鈍醜陋”之類的先天性殘疾和智力障礙。

 

    相反,如没有上述“不善业”则胎儿又是另一番景象: However, if they lack the above mentioned “karma of unkindness” the fetus will have different prospects. 相反,如沒有上述“不善業”則胎兒又是另一番景象:
“若于前世造十善业,好行惠施,无有悭贪、谄诳之心。  “If in past lives they created karma from the Ten Kinds of Wholesome Behavior, were charitable, were not stingy, did not flatter others to take advantage of them, and did not deceive people. “若於前世造十善業,好行惠施,無有慳貪、諂誑之心。
父母师长所有言教即皆信受。 They trusted, believed in and accepted the teachings of their parents, teachers and elders. 父母師長所有言教即皆信受。
以是因缘若得为人,则不受于如上诸恶业身,而便获得种种殊妙之身。 Because of these conditions, if they were reborn as human, they will not have the bad-karma bodies mentioned above and will, in fact, acquire all kinds of marvelous bodies. 以是因緣若得為人,則不受于如上諸惡業身,而便獲得種種殊妙之身。
颜容端正诸相具足,所有言音而为众人之所爱乐。 Their countenance and appearance will be good-looking and complete, and their voices will be attractive and pleasant to others. 顏容端正諸相具足,所有言音而為眾人之所愛樂。
是故当知由善业故,便得如是胜妙果报。” Consequently, from this we can see that because of kind behavior, they will acquire an especially marvelous karmic reward body. 是故當知由善業故,便得如是勝妙果報。”

 

此外,这一周内,胎儿的整体发育已基本完成。 During this week the fetus’ entire development has basically been completed. 此外,這一週內,胎兒的整體發育已基本完成。
如果胎儿为男,在母腹内,多偏向母亲右胁,两臂交叉于胸前,两手遮面,双腿也交叉, 膝盖蜷缩胸前,以半蹲坐位,面朝母亲而坐; If the fetus is male, it will incline toward the mother’s right side while in the womb, his arms will be crossed at the chest with his hands covering his face. His legs will be bent with the knees at his chest, squatting facing his mother. 如果胎兒為男,在母腹內,多偏向母親右脇,兩臂交叉於胸前,兩手遮面,雙腿也交叉, 膝蓋踡縮胸前,以半蹲坐位,面朝母親而坐;
如胎儿为女,则刚好相反,会偏于母亲的左胁,背对母亲,半蹲坐于母腹。正常情况下,胎儿会是这样。 Under normal conditions, if the fetus is female, she will be positioned in an opposite manner from the male. She will incline toward her mother’s left side, squatting in her mother’s womb with her back to her mother. 如胎兒為女,則剛好相反,會偏於母親的左脇,背對母親,半蹲坐於母腹。正常情況下,胎兒會是這樣。

 

此时胎儿各种器官统统发育完整,功能健全,有了灵敏的感知能力和丰富的思维活动。 At this time, each of the different organs will have completed their development, perfected their functions, will have sensitivity of perception and be rich in reaction thought processes [for example blinking when you think you will be slapped.] 此時胎兒各種器官統統發育完整,功能健全,有了靈敏的感知能力和豐富的思維活動。

 

          第二十八周胎儿开始有了自主的思维活动,归纳起来共有八种不同类型的幻想:①房屋类;②车乘类;③庭院类;④楼阁类;⑤树林类;⑥床座类;⑦河流类;⑧水池类。 In the 28th week the fetus will begin to have its own autonomous thoughts. These can be summed up as eight different types of illusions: 1) being in a room; 2) being in a vehicle; 3) being in a courtyard; 4) being in a building; 5) being in a forest; 6) being in bed; 7) being in a river; 8) being in a pond. 第二十八週胎兒開始有了自主的思維活動,歸納起來共有八種不同類型的幻想:①房屋類;②車乘類;③庭院類;④樓閣類;⑤樹林類;⑥床座類;⑦河流類;⑧水池類。

 

          第二十九周受另一种细风的影响,胎儿的皮肤会变得更加鲜白洁净。 In the 29th week, affected by another kind of subtle “wind,” the fetus’ skin will become clean and pure without flaws. 第二十九週受另一種細風的影響,胎兒的皮膚會變得更加鮮白潔淨。
如先天有“不善业”,则会呈现为各种不如意色,如黧黑、青绿等非正常色,或者皮肤干燥无光,以及留下不同色泽的印记。 If there is “bad karma” from behavior in past lives, it will manifest as inauspicious coloring, such abnormal sallow, dark or greenish colored skin, or the skin will be ashy with “birth marks.” 如先天有“不善業”,則會呈現為各種不如意色,如黧黑、青綠等非正常色,或者皮膚乾燥無光,以及留下不同色澤的印記。

 

          第三十周胎儿的头发和指甲开始生长,头发也会因各自先天的业力,显现黑、黄、白等不同颜色。 In the 30th week, the fetus’ hair and nails begin to grow out. Based upon past life karma, the hair will also appear in different colors – black, yellow, white, etc. 第三十週胎兒的頭髮和指甲開始生長,頭髮也會因各自先天的業力,顯現黑、黃、白等不同顏色。

 

          第三十一周至第三十四周胎儿逐渐长大、长胖。 In the 31st  to 34th weeks, the fetus grows in size and gains weight. 第三十一週至第三十四周胎兒逐漸長大、長胖。
          第三十五周胎儿身体、四肢发育最后完成。 In the 35th week, the fetus’ body and limbs will  complete their development. 第三十五週胎兒身體、四肢發育最後完成。
          第三十六周胎儿已不喜欢住于母腹,开始厌烦了。 In the 36th week, the fetus will no longer enjoy being in the womb and will begin to get frustrated. 第三十六週胎兒已不喜歡住於母腹,開始厭煩了。
          第三十七周胎儿开始产生三种感受和愿望: In the 37th week, the fetus will begin to have the following three feelings and desires: 第三十七週胎兒開始產生三種感受和願望:
1) 感觉到母腹中不干净,不愿久留,向往出离; 1) Feeling that being in the mother’s womb is filthy, and not wanting to stay there, desires to leave it; 1) 感覺到母腹中不乾淨,不願久留,嚮往出離;
2) 认为母腹气味恶臭难闻,不愿久留,向往出离; 2) Feeling that the womb does not smell good, desires to leave it; 2) 認為母腹氣味惡臭難聞,不願久留,嚮往出離;
3) 认为母腹太黑暗,太拥挤,不愿久留,向往出离。 3) Feeling that the womb is too dark, desires to leave it; 3) 認為母腹太黑暗,太擁擠,不願久留,嚮往出離。

 

          另有一种细风,促使胎儿转身向下,长伸两臂,趋向产门,同时胎身翻转,头朝下,脚向上,将出产门。 Another subtle “wind” will urge the fetus to turn downwards, stretch out its two arms, and incline toward the vaginal orifice. At the same time, the fetus will turn around with the head facing downward, and feet toward the top, preparing to exit via the vaginal orifice. 另有一種細風,促使胎兒轉身向下,長伸兩臂,趨向產門,同時胎身翻轉,頭朝下,腳向上,將出產門。
  第三十八周胎儿随时将出生。 In the 38th week, the baby will be born at any time. 第三十八週胎兒隨時將出生。

 

 

二、新生命的降生 3.2 Arrival of a New Life 二、新生命的降生

 

据经文中说,胎儿“……经九月或过九月是极圆满,住于八月者,虽亦圆满非极圆满; According to the sutras, the fetus

“ … is totally complete in nine or more (lunar) months. Although being in the womb for eight months is adequate, the fetus is not fully complete.

據經文中說,胎兒“……經九月或過九月是極圓滿,住於八月者,雖亦圓滿非極圓滿;
若经六月,或住七月,非圆满或复缺肢”,这和现代科学观点一致。 By six or seven months the fetus is not complete and a body part or organ may not be fully developed.”

This is the same as the modern scientific perspective.

若經六月,或住七月,非圓滿或復缺肢”,這和現代科學觀點一致。
实际上,等胎期到三十六周时,也就是八月中旬,胎儿已产生“不乐住胎,渴望出生”的念头,只是条件尚不成熟,难以实现自己的愿望。 The fetus has already developed thoughts of “dissatisfaction with staying in the womb; yearning to leave it,” in the 36th week fetal period, which would be the eighth (lunar) month. The conditions, though, are not yet ripe enough making it hard for the fetus to fulfill the desire to leave the womb. 實際上,等胎期到三十六週時,也就是八月中旬,胎兒已產生“不樂住胎,渴望出生”的念頭,只是條件尚不成熟,難以實現自己的願望。
等到胎身回转,“身头向于下,长伸两臂”才是降生时机的到来。 Once the fetus turns, “the body and head facing downward, stretching the arms upward,” the opportune time for birth has arrived. 等到胎身回轉,“身頭向於下,長伸兩臂”才是降生時機的到來。
虽然出生时机成熟,到了即将脱离母体的时刻,就要告别“黑暗”、“臭秽”、“压抑”的母腹,却并不是一件容易的事。 Although the time for birth is now ripe and the moment for the baby to break away from the mother’s body, bid farewell to “darkness,” “the unpleasant smell,” and the “constraints” of the mother’s womb has come, it will not be easy to do so. 雖然出生時機成熟,到了即將脫離母體的時刻,就要告別“黑暗”、“臭穢”、“壓抑”的母腹,卻並不是一件容易的事。
据经文记载“此如坚硬压油具,渐次压迫方得生”,可谓进来容易脱身难! According to the sutras, “It is like being pressed by a hard oil press that bit by bit is forcing the fetus out to be born.” We can say that it was easy getting into the womb but hard to get out! 據經文記載“此如堅硬壓油具,漸次壓迫方得生”,可謂進來容易脫身難!
想当初只因一念贪爱,伴随着一阵美妙的快乐,驰入母腹,到如今脱身之时却要经历如同置身榨油机中的极度痛苦压迫,近乎于窒息的可怕遭遇,被人拽出产道时,又好似从网眼中硬拉扯出来一样,苦不堪言! Remember that it was because of one thought of greedy love, along with having a moment of sexual pleasure that the bardo originally charged into the mother’s womb. Now the experience of breaking away from the womb must be as if its fetus body is being exposed to the excruciating pain of being pressed in an oil press. It is like being frightfully suffocated, or like being heaved out of the birth canal. Or like the unbearable suffering that a fish feels if it is too big to be pulled through the eye of a net. 想當初只因一念貪愛,伴隨著一陣美妙的快樂,馳入母腹,到如今脫身之時卻要經歷如同置身榨油機中的極度痛苦壓迫,近乎於窒息的可怕遭遇,被人拽出產道時,又好似從網眼中硬拉扯出來一樣,苦不堪言!

 

即使如此,尚属幸运。 As bad as this is, such a fetus is still one of the luckier ones. 即使如此,尚屬幸運。
倘若胎儿前世有“不善业”,如有堕他人胎,杀生害命等事,正当胎儿转身之时就会额外出现困难,如经文中说“其身手脚纵横转侧,恶业缘故,于母腹中而便舍命”,故将出生过程称为过“鬼门关”并不夸张。 Supposing the fetus’ previous life experience was that of creating “bad karma,” for example he or she intentionally caused the abortion of someone’s fetus to murder it, or took a life. Such a person’s rebirth fetus would have a much more difficult time turning itself around for the birth process than some other fetus would. The sutras explain this as, “Its feet and hands will move from being correctly vertical or horizontal to shifting to one side squirming as if it were in distress. Bad karma created in former lives may cause it to die in the womb. It may not complete the birth process. To say it is caught at the “Gate of Life And Death” would not be an exaggeration. 倘若胎兒前世有“不善業”,如有墮他人胎,殺生害命等事,正當胎兒轉身之時就會額外出現困難,如經文中說“其身手腳縱橫轉側,惡業緣故,於母腹中而便捨命”,故將出生過程稱為過“鬼門關”並不誇張。

 

临产之时,一般人只知产母“受诸痛苦”、“如千刀搅”,殊不知胎儿也同受无量的极难忍受的种种苦痛。 Most people only think about the mother “experiencing all kinds of suffering,” when about to give birth, “like a thousand knives being twisted into her”.  We can hardly imagine that the fetus is also enduring infinite anguish that is also extremely difficult to bear. 臨產之時,一般人只知產母“受諸痛苦”、“如千刀攪”,殊不知胎兒也同受無量的極難忍受的種種苦痛。
因人而异,有几十分钟即顺产的,也有几小时,一天、两天、五天、六天“艰难出生”的。 Because everyone is different, there are those who are aptly born after scores of minutes, but for some it may take a few hours, a day, a couple of days, five days, and even six days of a “rough birth.” 因人而異,有幾十分鐘即順產的,也有幾小時,一天、兩天、五天、六天“艱難出生”的。

 

在此期间,对于胎儿来说,分分秒秒,皆可用“如度春秋”来形容,其中滋味实难俱说。 For the fetus during this time, every minute, every second can feel “like a year”. What it is experiencing is really hard to put into words. 在此期間,對於胎兒來說,分分秒秒,皆可用“如度春秋”來形容,其中滋味實難俱說。
经文中是这样描述的:“欲产之时,辛苦而出,由彼业风,令手交合,支节拳(蜷)缩,受大剧苦。 The sutras describe it as, “When desiring to be born, the fetus comes out laboriously, its ‘karmic wind’ causes its hands to cross at its face; all the joints of its body are squeezed together as it endures severe suffering. 經文中是這樣描述的:“欲產之時,辛苦而出,由彼業風,令手交合,支節拳(蜷)縮,受大劇苦。
欲出母胎,身体青瘀,犹如初肿(皮肤受伤初发的红肿),难可触着”,同时“饥渴逼迫,心悬热恼”。 “The fetus, desiring to exit the mother, is bruised if touched causing swelling (like the red swelling on skin that has been injured) making contact with anything trying.” At the same time it is, “driven by hunger and thirst causing its mind to be disturbed by anxiety and distress.” 欲出母胎,身體青瘀,猶如初腫(皮膚受傷初發的紅腫),難可觸著”,同時“饑渴逼迫,心懸熱惱”。

 

更可怜的是大人的痛苦能表达出来,能得到别人的关怀、安慰和帮助,胎儿的痛苦既无言语能讲,也无方法能令人感知。 Even more pitiful is that adults, in order to receive care, comfort, and help from others can express their suffering; the fetus on the other hand, cannot express its suffering in words, so it has no means of informing people about what it is feeling. 更可憐的是大人的痛苦能表達出來,能得到別人的關懷、安慰和幫助,胎兒的痛苦既無言語能講,也無方法能令人感知。
稚嫩弱小的身体,只能孤身面对独自承担这无量无边的苦痛。 Thus, the fetus’ soft and immature body can only bear its endless suffering alone. 稚嫩弱小的身體,只能孤身面對獨自承擔這無量無邊的苦痛。
除佛及佛教中具有大智慧的修行人以外,无人能知,无人能信。 Other than the Buddha and Buddhist practitioners who have a high level of wisdom there is no one else who will know what a fetus endures, no one else who can believe it. 除佛及佛教中具有大智慧的修行人以外,無人能知,無人能信。
当然也不可能去安慰关怀他们,更不要说代他们减轻痛苦的事了。 Of course, it is impossible to console or comfort a fetus, much less alleviate its suffering. 當然也不可能去安慰關懷他們,更不要說代他們減輕痛苦的事了。

 

千百年来,除佛教以外,别无有人,想到过考虑胎儿的自身感受和心理渴望。 For thousands of years, with the exception of Buddhism, there is no one who thought of considering the fetus’ own feelings and psychological needs. 千百年來,除佛教以外,別無有人,想到過考慮胎兒的自身感受和心理渴望。
虽然到了高科技的今天,对于这一课题,依旧无人留意,岂不悲哀! Though we are now in a high-tech world, this issue is still of no one’s concern. Isn’t this sad? 雖然到了高科技的今天,對於這一課題,依舊無人留意,豈不悲哀!
甚至每见小孩出生,为强令呼吸,有意拍打臀部,迫其哭叫,而任由大人们在一旁欢笑,根本无视小孩的感受,两者形成明显的对比,在佛教的明眼人看来,似乎有点“讽刺”的味道! Every time a baby is born he or she is even deliberately spanked on the buttocks to force the baby to breathe, compelling it to cry. This makes everyone nearby break out with laughter. They are completely disregarding the baby’s feelings. Their attitudes and their feelings are in sharp contrast with those of the baby. Bright minded Buddhists perceive this as being somewhat “ironic”! 甚至每見小孩出生,為強令呼吸,有意拍打臀部,迫其哭叫,而任由大人們在一旁歡笑,根本無視小孩的感受,兩者形成明顯的對比,在佛教的明眼人看來,似乎有點“諷刺”的味道!

 

 

三、

不被理睬的啼哭

3.3 Crying that is not Heeded 三、

不被理睬的啼哭

 

我们常用“呱呱落地”来形容新生儿,正因为这个哭声太普通了,很少有人去留意和重视它。 We often use, “Wah,  wah…,”to describe the birth of a baby, because the sound of crying at birth is so common. Rarely do people notice it or attach any significance to it. 我們常用“呱呱落地”來形容新生兒,正因為這個哭聲太普通了,很少有人去留意和重視它。
多数人认为小孩的哭声乃是初次呼吸的需要,哭声能启动从未使用过的呼吸系统。 Most people believe that the sound of a baby crying is necessary for the first breath. Crying can initiate the start of the respiratory system that has never been used before. 多數人認為小孩的哭聲乃是初次呼吸的需要,哭聲能啟動從未使用過的呼吸系統。
当然一般人只重视自己所能感知的事物和理论,只承认自己能了解和可以理解的事实、现象,对于未知的如婴儿的感受与思维,因无从着手,常以轻率的态度予以否认。 Of course ordinary people only value things and concepts that they can perceive on their own. They only recognize the truth and phenomena that they themselves can understand and grasp. What such people often flippantly reject is that which they cannot understand because these are not concrete, such as the sensations and thoughts of a baby. 當然一般人只重視自己所能感知的事物和理論,只承認自己能瞭解和可以理解的事實、現象,對於未知的如嬰兒的感受與思維,因無從著手,常以輕率的態度予以否認。

 

大概也是正因为如此,千万年来,一个个无助的小孩,从原始时代一直哭到现在,仍无人理睬。 It is probably for this reason that for thousands of years, helpless babies have been ceaselessly crying like this from primitive times until today. How could it be that no one takes heed? 大概也是正因為如此,千萬年來,一個個無助的小孩,從原始時代一直哭到現在,仍無人理睬。
也难怪,实在是没有人能够感知初生小儿的心理感受和神经感觉。 No wonder there is no one who can perceive the emotions and physical sensations of babies. 也難怪,實在是沒有人能夠感知初生小兒的心理感受和神經感覺。

 

佛经很清楚地告诉我们,因为新生儿初次接触空气,顿时会有如活牛剥皮触墙的极其痛苦的感觉,有苦难言,唯有啼哭,而世人对此却全然不知,往往一笑了之,根本无人在意。 The Buddhist sutras very clearly tell us that because a newborn baby, when it first contacts air, immediately feels extreme torment like that of a calf if it were skinned alive and its raw flesh pressed against a rough wall. The baby’s agony cannot be expressed in words, and all it can do is cry and cry. People have no idea that this is what the baby is feeling and so in most cases they will laugh, no one caring about the baby at all. 佛經很清楚地告訴我們,因為新生兒初次接觸空氣,頓時會有如活牛剝皮觸牆的極其痛苦的感覺,有苦難言,唯有啼哭,而世人對此卻全然不知,往往一笑了之,根本無人在意。

 

无奈,也只能说小儿哭得有理,而大人笑得无理。 All we can say is that there is a good reason for newborn babies to cry, but there is no reason for the adults to be laughing. 無奈,也只能說小兒哭得有理,而大人笑得無理。

 

四、被遗忘的旅程 3.4 The Forgotten Journey 四、被遺忘的旅程

 

我们可能会疑惑:原本是明明白白的入胎,又在意识清醒中念念不断的成长,直到出生降临人间,分明是清清楚楚的一路走来,又为何长大后这些都被遗忘的干干净净,一个个都好像若无其事一样? We may possibly doubt why bardos enter the fetus with complete clarity, and again with a clear mind growth takes place without a break in their thoughts. It continues on like this all the way to rebirth. The path to their arrival into the human realm is traversed with clarity. So why is every iota of their experience forgotten after they grow up? It is as if every single thing in the past had never happened. 我們可能會疑惑:原本是明明白白的入胎,又在意識清醒中念念不斷的成長,直到出生降臨人間,分明是清清楚楚的一路走來,又為何長大後這些都被遺忘的乾乾淨淨,一個個都好像若無其事一樣?
民间相传投胎前要喝阴间的“孟婆汤”,传说是为了让投胎的人忘记前世的记忆。 Chinese myth has it that before moving on to rebirth, we must first drink “Grannie Meng’s Tonic” while still in the bardo realm. This is so that people being reborn lose the entire memory of their previous lives. 民間相傳投胎前要喝陰間的“孟婆湯”,傳說是為了讓投胎的人忘記前世的記憶。
而佛经则更侧重于赞成是由于胎儿遭受到极重“苦受”的缘故,令其“闷厥”昏迷,而淡忘了这一段历尽艰辛的旅程。 The Buddhist sutras particularly emphasize the fact that it is the laborious agony experienced during the rebirth process that makes us go unconscious from “the trauma”. The arduous experience of the hard journey is buried in our memories. 而佛經則更側重於贊成是由於胎兒遭受到極重“苦受”的緣故,令其“悶厥”昏迷,而淡忘了這一段歷盡艱辛的旅程。

 

试想,如果让成年人再重新模拟尝试一次这三十八周胎儿的感受,肯定会留下刻骨铭心的印象,终生难忘。 Just think, if adults were permitted to once again go through the sensations of a fetus’ 38 weeks, they would surely be left with haunting images engraved into their memories that they would not forget throughout their entire lives. 試想,如果讓成年人再重新模擬嘗試一次這三十八週胎兒的感受,肯定會留下刻骨銘心的印象,終生難忘。
为什么小孩在成人后,几乎无一能回忆起这段旅程呢? Why can practically no children remember the journey after they grow up? 為什麼小孩在成人後,幾乎無一能回憶起這段旅程呢?

 

原因只有一点,就是新生命的诞生过程太痛苦了,这种痛苦可能让人思想崩溃,昏迷,窒息。 There is only one reason, and that is because the process of rebirth to a new life is too painful. Remembering such agony would cause a person to faint, suffer apnea, and/or have a mental breakdown. 原因只有一點,就是新生命的誕生過程太痛苦了,這種痛苦可能讓人思想崩潰,昏迷,窒息。
痛苦程度非常剧烈,时间的漫长,足以代替所有的感受,占据所有的记忆空间,冲淡其它平淡的记忆内容。 The level of suffering is very intense, and the time it takes to unfold is so long it replaces all other feelings. This suffering occupies the space for all other memories diluting the content of ordinary memories. 痛苦程度非常劇烈,時間的漫長,足以代替所有的感受,佔據所有的記憶空間,沖淡其它平淡的記憶內容。

 

可想而知,经过这一番众苦相煎的可怕历程,绝大多数小孩的先天记忆,如知识、能力、才华,和中阴身九倍于常人的智力基本上荡然无存,出生后都得从头开始学习。 It isn’t hard to imagine that the congenital memory of the overwhelming majority of children, appears to have been fundamentally wiped out during the experience of their frightening process repeated again and again. This memory included their knowledge, abilities, and talent. Added to these is the intelligence they had while still a bardo, which is nine times higher than the average person. Yet, after they are born, children have to learn everything all over again. 可想而知,經過這一番眾苦相煎的可怕歷程,絕大多數小孩的先天記憶,如知識、能力、才華,和中陰身九倍于常人的智力基本上蕩然無存,出生後都得從頭開始學習。
佛教称之为“隔阴之迷”,就是由于胎中乃至诞生时的种种痛苦折磨,将原本先天的智慧和记忆蒙蔽住了,丝毫回忆不起来 ,还以为自己是另外一个完全不同的人。 In Buddhism this is called “the bardo to baby amnesia divide”. It occurs because the suffering and torment of a fetus, throughout the birth process, overshadows its original wisdom and memory. Not one shred can be recalled.  Babies will grow and develop into people who believe that they are now completely different individuals from their previous life selves. 佛教稱之為“隔陰之迷”,就是由於胎中乃至誕生時的種種痛苦折磨,將原本先天的智慧和記憶蒙蔽住了,絲毫回憶不起來 ,還以為自己是另外一個完全不同的人。

 

 

 

五、借胎与夺胎 3.5 Appropriating and Stealing the Fetus 五、借胎與奪胎

 

 

在胎儿的世界有许许多多我们常人不可知、不可见、不可思议的事情,其中之一就是借胎和夺胎。 There are a great many things in the world of the fetus, which are impossible for us ordinary folks to know about, see, or even imagine. Among them are “borrowing a fetus” and “seizing a fetus”.  在胎兒的世界有許許多多我們常人不可知、不可見、不可思議的事情,其中之一就是借胎和奪胎。

 

一般情况下,中阴生命从进入父精母血内成为羯罗蓝身开始,就一直被困在其中,直到胎儿出生,从先天到后天只有一个中阴生命。 Under normal circumstances, from the time the bardo enters the fertilized egg and becomes the beginning of the kalala (the first fetal stage embryo), it is continuously locked within the fetus all the way until the baby is born. There is only one bardo from the past life to the present life.  一般情況下,中陰生命從進入父精母血內成為羯羅藍身開始,就一直被困在其中,直到胎兒出生,從先天到後天只有一個中陰生命。
特殊情况下,胎儿在临出生时,原中阴生命因故离去,即刻又重新载入另一个中阴生命来接替并成为胎儿的神识,如果前一中阴生命属自主离开的就称借胎,如被迫离开的就是夺胎。 The exception to this norm is when the baby is just about to be born and the bardo departs. Instantaneously, a different bardo downloads itself replacing the first bardo and becomes the fetus’ consciousness. If the first bardo left of its own accord, it is called borrowing a fetus. If the first bardo was forced to leave, it is called seizing a fetus. 特殊情況下,胎兒在臨出生時,原中陰生命因故離去,即刻又重新載入另一個中陰生命來接替並成為胎兒的神識,如果前一中陰生命屬自主離開的就稱借胎,如被迫離開的就是奪胎。

 

          借胎,是一种原因十分复杂的自然现象,是当小孩出生时,或因前一中阴生命因缘到头,寿数已尽,或有意为他人帮忙,或为偿还业债,自己离开,而另一中阴生命刚好机缘成熟,万事具备,借其方便,即入体内成借胎,也叫代受胎。 What causes the borrowing of a fetus is a natural phenomenon that is very complex. There are many reasons for it to occur. Possibly, when a baby is being born, the causes and conditions of the bardo may come to an end. Maybe its lifespan is exhausted, or the original bardo intentionally supported this fetus to help the next bardo. It may have come to repay a karmic debt to the new one. Whatever the circumstances, the first bardo has left of its own accord. Now circumstances have matured so that the new bardo may enter. Everything is in place for the bardo to take advantage of this convenient opportunity to enter the fetus. This is also called bardo replacement.           借胎,是一種原因十分複雜的自然現象,是當小孩出生時,或因前一中陰生命因緣到頭,壽數已盡,或有意為他人幫忙,或為償還業債,自己離開,而另一中陰生命剛好機緣成熟,萬事具備,借其方便,即入體內成借胎,也叫代受胎。
这种情况,后来者往往是有大福德的中阴生命,与父母有特别深厚的缘分,或是乘愿再来的圣人,因福德极大,无须住胎受苦,又恰遇其它中阴所弃之胎,故借胎而生。 In this situation the new bardo, in most cases, is a bardo with a great deal of blessings and merit. It most likely has an especially deep karmic connection with its parents. The new bardo may possibly be a sage, who has come because of a vow made in a former lifetime. Because its blessings and merit are so extremely great it does not have to reside in the fetus and endure the suffering. This sage may just happened to meet up with a fetus that has been abandoned by its bardo. The sage borrows the fetus to be reborn. 這種情況,後來者往往是有大福德的中陰生命,與父母有特別深厚的緣分,或是乘願再來的聖人,因福德極大,無須住胎受苦,又恰遇其它中陰所棄之胎,故借胎而生。

 

在民间,有时在胎儿即将出生时会看到有人前来入胎,多是属于这一类。 There are eyewitness accounts of people seeing a being entering the womb with a baby in it about to be born. This is a bardo coming to borrow the fetus. 在民間,有時在胎兒即將出生時會看到有人前來入胎,多是屬於這一類。
和其他胎儿不同,这样的小孩常生来就有超人的灵敏度,或对前世的记忆历历在目,甚至一生下来即能言语。 A borrowed fetus, unlike other ones, will become a child with a superior intelligence. Such children distinctly remember past life events. They may even be able to speak right after birth. 和其他胎兒不同,這樣的小孩常生來就有超人的靈敏度,或對前世的記憶歷歷在目,甚至一生下來即能言語。
《地藏菩萨本愿功德经》中记载:有一名叫光目的女子,她的母亲死后投胎家中,托生为一侍女之子,出生三日“才知饥寒,即当言说”,讲出许多前世的经历和死后的见闻,这是因为光目女诚心念佛,母亲受佛力帮助,在死后数日内即借胎生于家中的缘故。 It is recorded in The Vows and Merit of Bodhisattva Kṣitigarbha Sutra that the mother of a girl named Guangmu died and was reborn into a household as the child of a female servant there. On the third day after her birth, “…when she was just realizing what hunger and cold were, she was already able to speak….” She spoke a great deal about her former life experiences and what she saw and heard after she died. This was possible because Guangmu sincerely chanted the name of a Buddha transferring the merit to her mother. Her mother, helped by the power of the Buddha, borrowed a fetus a few days after her death and was reborn into that household. 《地藏菩薩本願功德經》中記載:有一名叫光目的女子,她的母親死後投胎家中,托生為一侍女之子,出生三日“才知饑寒,即當言說”,講出許多前世的經歷和死後的見聞,這是因為光目女誠心念佛,母親受佛力幫助,在死後數日內即借胎生於家中的緣故。

 

印光大师对此有更明确的解释:“生时每有亲见其人之入母室者,乃有父母交媾时,代为受胎,迨其胎成,本识方来,代识随去也。” Master Yinguang gave an explicit explanation of this event. “When a relative sees “someone” unexpectedly entering the room of a woman about to have a baby, it is the original bardo coming to reclaim the fetus. This is because when the woman was having sex with her husband, the original bardo that came to them at that time, left and was replaced with a different bardo.  The original bardo waits until the fetus is grown, and for the replacement bardo to leave, before it comes to reenter the fetus. 印光大師對此有更明確的解釋:“生時每有親見其人之入母室者,乃有父母交媾時,代為受胎,迨其胎成,本識方來,代識隨去也。”
夺胎则是因后一中阴生命故意“夺舍”,强占前一中阴生命住胎成果而出生,两者之间大多有刻意讨债的孽缘存在。 A fetus is seized when a bardo intentionally “seizes the place of the first bardo” replacing it. It forcibly occupies the original bardo’s fetus, inhabiting the fetus. This is because the original bardo’s fetus has already grown to fruition and is about to be born.  Among these two types the majority of the bardos that seize a fetus are deliberately taking what is owed to them. This is because of evil conditions from their former lives that cause them to do this. 奪胎則是因後一中陰生命故意“奪舍”,強佔前一中陰生命住胎成果而出生,兩者之間大多有刻意討債的孽緣存在。

 

有时入胎的中阴生命只是神识的一部分,佛教称第八意识,也叫阿赖耶识,它的特点是“来先去后”:住胎时,第八意识首先到来,人临终时又是最后一个离开。 Sometimes, the bardo that enters the fetus is only the eighth of all the eight consciousnesses. In Buddhism this eighth consciousness is called the alaya-consciousness.  Its special characteristic is that, “it is the first to come and last to leave.” The eighth consciousness is the first of the consciousnesses to arrive at the fetus. When people approach their death it is the last to leave. 有時入胎的中陰生命只是神識的一部分,佛教稱第八意識,也叫阿賴耶識,它的特點是“來先去後”:住胎時,第八意識首先到來,人臨終時又是最後一個離開。

alaya-consciousness阿賴耶識: ālayavijñāna, Transliteration of the Sanskrit, meaning store consciousness. The ‘store-house’ consciousness, a distinctive concept of the Yogācāra school 瑜伽行派 of Buddhism. The ālayavijñāna denotes the mental processes that underlie each and every moment of the traditional six forms of manifest cognitive awareness (pravṛtti-vijñāna轉識, 六識) — a term coined to distinguish it from the continuous yet subliminal ‘ālaya’ (阿賴耶) or ‘home’ awareness. The ālayavijñāna is denoted by a variety of synonyms, most importantly: the root consciousness (mūla-vijñāna) 本識), the ‘mind with all the seeds’ (sarvabījaka-citta一切種子識), and the appropriating consciousness (ādāna-vijñāna 阿陀那識). Ignorant beings typically mistaken the ālaya awareness as their self (atman 我).

(Excerpt from William Waldron)

直至胎儿将出生时,其它意识才最后到来,组成胎儿完整的神识。 It is not until the time the baby is being born, that the other consciousnesses will finally arrive.  They will complete the organization of the fetus’ full consciousness. 直至胎兒將出生時,其它意識才最後到來,組成胎兒完整的神識。
如祖师讲“命难未尽,识已投生,直至将生,方始全分心神附彼胎体”。 It is as the patriarchs have said, “When one is not yet dead, some of the consciousnesses have already been reborn, and not until the baby is being born will all of the consciousnesses be entirely attached to the fetus.” [- A Collection of  the Recordings of Master Yin Guang’s Question and Answers from a lecture during a Prajna Chanting Retreat] 如祖師講“命難未盡,識已投生,直至將生,方始全分心神附彼胎體”。
如果等胎儿临出生时,原神识又改道投生别处,则此时住胎的第八识自然离去,其它中阴生命则极有可能乘机接替入胎,成为另一种夺胎的因缘。 If, while waiting for the fetus to be born as a baby, the original consciousness changes its path (direction) to be reborn somewhere else, then at this time, the eighth consciousness residing in the fetus will naturally also leave. It is extremely likely that another bardo may seize this opportunity to take over and enter the fetus. This describes yet another set of causes and conditions for seizing a fetus. 如果等胎兒臨出生時,原神識又改道投生別處,則此時住胎的第八識自然離去,其它中陰生命則極有可能乘機接替入胎,成為另一種奪胎的因緣。

 

以上都是未知界“不可说不可说”因果规律下的自然现象,普通人难以预知和干涉。 The above is a world that is not known to most people. It is portrayed in the sutra as “indescribable and inexplicable,” yet it is composed of natural phenomena existing under the laws of cause and effect. It is difficult for the average person to foresee it and interfere. 以上都是未知界“不可說不可說”因果規律下的自然現象,普通人難以預知和干涉。
我们所要研究的是最后一种可能,即因胎儿临出产时遭受剧苦,一时昏迷,而被其它中阴生命趁虚而入夺胎,占了便宜,实在冤枉。 We need to research the possibility of a fetus “passing out” as it nears the time of its birth because it is subject to more intense suffering than it can endure. At this time another bardo may take advantage of its being unaware to seize the fetus. The new bardo can “come off cheap” (not having to undergo the suffering), and it is truly a grievous injustice for the first bardo. 我們所要研究的是最後一種可能,即因胎兒臨出產時遭受劇苦,一時昏迷,而被其它中陰生命趁虛而入奪胎,占了便宜,實在冤枉。

 

六、四种胎儿 3.6 Four Types of Fetus 六、四種胎兒

 

 

按佛经记载,依中阴生命入胎、住胎、出胎意识的清醒状况的不同,可将胎儿分为四种。 According to the Buddhist sutras, a fetus can be classified into four types based on the specific level of the bardo’s clarity of mind as it enters the womb, resides in it, and is born from it. 按佛經記載,依中陰生命入胎、住胎、出胎意識的清醒狀況的不同,可將胎兒分為四種。
正是这四种不同状况,也决定了未来小孩的四等智商、四等福德及将来四种不同的命运。 These four different levels also determine the future child’s four different levels of IQ, blessings, merit, and probable future. They are: 正是這四種不同狀況,也決定了未來小孩的四等智商、四等福德及將來四種不同的命運。
(一)正念入,正念住,正念出 1. Clarity (exemplified by remembering who it is) when entering the womb, clarity when residing in the womb, and clarity when being born from the womb (一)正念入,正念住,正念出
(二)正念入,正念住,不正念出 2. Clarity when entering, clarity when residing, but lack of clarity when being born (二)正念入,正念住,不正念出
(三)正念入,不正念住,不正念出 3. Clarity when entering, but lack of clarity when residing and lack of clarity when being born (三)正念入,不正念住,不正念出
(四)不正念入,不正念住,不正念出 4. Lack of clarity when entering, lack of clarity when residing, and lack of clarity when being born (四)不正念入,不正念住,不正念出
所谓“正念入,正念住,正念出”,是指入胎时意识清醒,不因贪爱和各种痛苦迷失自我。 “Clarity when entering, clarity when residing, and clarity when being born,” refers to the bardo having sober thoughts when it enters the fetus; its thoughts are not clouded by the greedy love [when entering the womb]; or suffering [while residing in the womb]. 所謂“正念入,正念住,正念出”,是指入胎時意識清醒,不因貪愛和各種痛苦迷失自我。
这种人常常是有大智慧的中阴生命投胎而来,如经文所说,“有大智慧……虽苦来逼,受诸痛恼,心不散乱……,复还正念入母胎内”。 The person with this type of clarity is often reborn with the great wisdom it has as a bardo. It is as the sutras state: “With great wisdom…though pressured by suffering and all kinds of distress, its mind is not disturbed…, again, it still has clarity of thoughts [of its past life] as it enters into the fetus in the mother’s womb.” 這種人常常是有大智慧的中陰生命投胎而來,如經文所說,“有大智慧……雖苦來逼,受諸痛惱,心不散亂……,復還正念入母胎內”。
其在住胎过程中,虽免不了遭受各种各样来自胎中及母亲饮食行为所产生的痛苦,“此胎如是住母腹中。受如斯苦”,尽管如此,“虽受此痛。由利根故正念不散” Having to bear discomfort brought on by the mother and fetus eating and drinking different kinds of foods is unavoidable while the bardo resides in the fetus. Still, “This type of consciousness resides in the fetus, in the mother’s womb, enduring the discomfort … though enduring this distress, its clarity is not lost because its faculties are sharp.” 其在住胎過程中,雖免不了遭受各種各樣來自胎中及母親飲食行為所產生的痛苦,“此胎如是住母腹中。受如斯苦” ,儘管如此,“雖受此痛。由利根故正念不散”
仍神识清醒,意志坚定,无有动摇。 Its mind is still clear and its will is steadfast with no uncertainty. 仍神識清醒,意志堅定,無有動搖。
至临出生时,更少不了要遭受巨大痛苦 “又欲产时辛苦而出。 During the birth process, it will ultimately sustain an even greater amount of suffering, “again when the time for birth arrives and it is born with a great deal of hardship… 至臨出生時,更少不了要遭受巨大痛苦 “又欲產時辛苦而出。
…虽受此苦。由上利根故正念不乱”, … though experiencing this suffering, the sharp faculties of its mind will permit the fetus’ mind to remain undisturbed.” …雖受此苦。由上利根故正念不亂”,
此类胎儿必具足两种殊胜,一是福德殊胜,二是智慧殊胜,常常是佛及大菩萨等大根器的一类人。 Such fetuses grow into people who will certainly have two exceptional qualities: First, excellent blessings and virtue, and second, outstanding wisdom. Often they were buddhas or great bodhisattvas with prominent roots (an aptitude for wisdom). 此類胎兒必具足兩種殊勝,一是福德殊勝,二是智慧殊勝,常常是佛及大菩薩等大根器的一類人。

 

照此看来,这种小孩绝非等闲之辈,以幼小身躯,即能于如此痛苦的环境中,保持镇静,心不错乱,定有先世特殊的因缘。 From this we can see that they definitely will not be ordinary children because they certainly have had former lives with special circumstances, which now causes them to be able to maintain composure although they are only infants. They will not let their minds fall into confusion in an environment of suffering. 照此看來,這種小孩絕非等閒之輩,以幼小身軀,即能於如此痛苦的環境中,保持鎮靜,心不錯亂,定有先世特殊的因緣。
经文讲“有一类凡夫有情,性(习性)爱持戒(遵守戒律法律制度),数习善品,乐为胜事,作诸福行。 The sutras state: “there is a type of ordinary person with a character (habits) that prefers upholding precepts (following precepts, the law and social norms). Such a person has a good lifestyle, takes pleasure in doing great acts that uplift entire societies, and does things that bring blessings to others. 經文講“有一類凡夫有情,性(習性)愛持戒(遵守戒律法律制度),數習善品,樂為勝事,作諸福行。
极善防护,恒思质直不为放逸”,显然,这些小孩过去世就常能积德修善,洁身自制,心直意端,有大智慧,不难预见,将来长大成人,必然聪颖过人,大智大勇,做事有始有终,属利根上器,为人中丈夫,必成大器! People like this will encourage themselves to do only good, and will always remind themselves to improve. They will have integrity, always be true and not hypocritical. ” It is obvious that in past lives they developed virtue and often did acts of kindness. After their rebirth they become good children who can manage themselves well and have good hygiene. Their hearts and minds will be honest and decent, and they will be sensible. You will have no difficulty predicting what will become of them. It becomes obvious that when they grow to be adults they will be more intelligent than their peers, be wise and brave, and they will finish whatever they set out to do. They will belong to that category of people who put their faculties to use helping others. They will become benevolent guides who are of great use to people. 極善防護,恒思質直不為放逸”,顯然,這些小孩過去世就常能積德修善,潔身自制,心直意端,有大智慧,不難預見,將來長大成人,必然聰穎過人,大智大勇,做事有始有終,屬利根上器,為人中丈夫,必成大器!
要么是伟大的精神领袖,新时代新领域的开创者,或新思想,新理念的缔造者,要么是修行大觉大悟的宗教导师。 They may become spiritual leaders, pioneers in a new era or a new realm. They may be creators of a new ideology or way of thinking. They may also be religious instructors of an enlightened practice. 要麼是偉大的精神領袖,新時代新領域的開創者,或新思想,新理念的締造者,要麼是修行大覺大悟的宗教導師。

 

正念入,正念住,不正念出”是指入胎时也能把握自己,心不迷乱颠倒,在神识清醒明白的状态下进入母腹,而且直到住胎的最后,虽也屡经各种痛苦考验,仍能不失正念,坚定不移,保持清醒,只是无法忍受在出生过程中的极剧烈的苦痛,而终究昏迷颠倒,忘失自我。 Clarity when entering the womb, clarity when residing in the womb, and lack of clarity when being born indicates that the bardo will have thoughts of self, place, time and purpose when entering and residing in the womb. Such a mind has not become dazed nor confused. It has entered the fetus alert and lucid. Moreover, though it had experienced all the ordeals of suffering, it never lost clarity. It is steadfast and unmoving, remains alert and knows who it is and its purpose right up until the end of its stay in the womb. But it cannot endure the extremely severe suffering of the birth process which will cause it to become dazed and confused. It will then forget itself. 正念入,正念住,不正念出”是指入胎時也能把握自己,心不迷亂顛倒,在神識清醒明白的狀態下進入母腹,而且直到住胎的最後,雖也屢經各種痛苦考驗,仍能不失正念,堅定不移,保持清醒,只是無法忍受在出生過程中的極劇烈的苦痛,而終究昏迷顛倒,忘失自我。
“可见临产时的痛苦是何等惨烈,一般人根本坚持不下来,更何况是弱小的胎儿。 “From this we can see how wretchedly intense the suffering of birth can be. The average person cannot stand such crushing pain, no less a small and fragile infant. “可見臨產時的痛苦是何等慘烈,一般人根本堅持不下來,更何況是弱小的胎兒。

 

当然能做到“正念入,正念住”这两个阶段不迷失,也的确难能可贵。 Of course to be able to achieve the two levels of “clarity (remembering who it was) when entering the womb, and clarity when residing in the womb,” without becoming dazed is indeed both hard to accomplish and commendable. 當然能做到“正念入,正念住”這兩個階段不迷失,也的確難能可貴。
经文讲这种人“少有智慧”,就是有一些智慧,但没有前一种人的智慧高。 The sutras speak of such people as being “somewhat wise,” which means having some wisdom, but as not being as wise as the type of people mentioned initially. 經文講這種人“少有智慧”,就是有一些智慧,但沒有前一種人的智慧高。
尽管“少有智慧”,也是修行而来,“性乐持戒修习善品,常为胜事作诸福行。 Although they are “somewhat wise” the wisdom of the second type of person came about through self-development. “They naturally take pleasure in upholding precepts and practicing acts of kindness. They will often perform acts that uplift a society and bring blessings to many people. 儘管“少有智慧”,也是修行而來,“性樂持戒修習善品,常為勝事作諸福行。
其心质直不为放逸。 “They will have minds geared toward honesty and hard work. 其心質直不為放逸。
少有智慧临终无悔”。 “People who are somewhat wise will not die with regret,” which will help them earn a good rebirth. 少有智慧臨終無悔”。

 

此类胎儿因“久习多闻,胜思择故”,具足超人的智慧和定力,常常是修道者,独觉、声闻、二乘罗汉之类的人。 Because this fetus was entered by a bardo consciousness from one who “had been learning the Dharma for a very long time in past lives, it knows right from wrong.” It will have wisdom and concentration that surpasses others. Most fetuses like this have received the consciousness of practitioners who in past lives were on a Path of Truth. For example they were arhats of the two vehicles of śrāvakas (hearers of the Dharma, direct disciples of a buddha) and pratyekabuddhas (self-realizers of Universal Truth). 此類胎兒因“久習多聞,勝思擇故”,具足超人的智慧和定力,常常是修道者,獨覺、聲聞、二乘羅漢之類的人。
这种人佛称之为“中利根人”,虽未能善始善终,坚持到最后,但也实属不易,也是有根基的一类人,将来也会是了不起的人物,至少他会心性贤良,知书达理,是端正的文人君子的类型。 This kind of person the Buddha called “one of medium level faculty roots.” Although clarity is not maintained throughout, as it is unable to endure the final stage of birth, still it is worth commending. These are people with a penchant for one day becoming extraordinary, virtuous and good. They are rational and decent literati. 這種人佛稱之為“中利根人”,雖未能善始善終,堅持到最後,但也實屬不易,也是有根基的一類人,將來也會是了不起的人物,至少他會心性賢良,知書達理,是端正的文人君子的類型。
相比之下,他们意志方面稍有欠缺,遇重大事件,或许会柔弱寡断,但其才华和能力也远超乎常人。 In contrast though, they are deficient in will power. When they encounter a major event, they may become weak and indecisive. Yet their talent and abilities are far more than that of the average person. 相比之下,他們意志方面稍有欠缺,遇重大事件,或許會柔弱寡斷,但其才華和能力也遠超乎常人。

 

“正念入,不正念住,不正念出”是指入胎时虽能保持立场,神识清醒,意不颠倒,一旦进入胎中,稍遇痛苦,随即昏迷,反悔,懊恼,乃至出生剧苦降临时,更是迷失得糊涂不堪。 “Clarity when entering the womb, lack of clarity when residing in the womb, and lack of clarity when being born” refers to a bardo consciousness that is able to maintain its remembrance of self when it enters the womb with a clear consciousness, and is not confused.  But once it is in the womb, and in the process of residing in the womb, discomfort causes it to become dazed. It will regret being there and become upset. By the time the severity of the pain of the birth process sets in, it will become even more lost in its suffering and lose its ability to endure because its concentration had already been lost. “正念入,不正念住,不正念出”是指入胎時雖能保持立場,神識清醒,意不顛倒,一旦進入胎中,稍遇痛苦,隨即昏迷,反悔,懊惱,乃至出生劇苦降臨時,更是迷失得糊塗不堪。
虽说不能和前两种人相比,但仍然值得赞叹,他也是先前修行的结果,经文讲“性乐持戒修习善品,常为胜思作诸福行”。 Although it cannot be compared to the previous two kinds of people, it is still worthy of praise. It is still the result of self-development in former lifetimes. The sutras state, “They naturally take pleasure in upholding precepts and practicing acts of kindness. They will often think of doing things that uplift a society and bring blessings to many people. 雖說不能和前兩種人相比,但仍然值得讚歎,他也是先前修行的結果,經文講“性樂持戒修習善品,常為勝思作諸福行”。

 

可以说,这种胎儿同样是有德之人,佛称之为“下利根人”,其原因是智慧少,定力不足的原故。 It can be said that this type of fetus has the consciousness of a person who is virtuous like the others. The Buddha called them, “People of lower faculty roots.” This is because they are not very wise and are deficient in concentration. 可以說,這種胎兒同樣是有德之人,佛稱之為“下利根人”,其原因是智慧少,定力不足的緣故。
这一类人,将来也会是富贵之人,也会比较聪明,唯自制力和判断力差些,耐力不足,相对有些情绪化。 Such people may acquire both wealth and social rank, be somewhat smarter than others, but they lack restraint and the ability to make wise decisions. They have weak stamina and are emotional. 這一類人,將來也會是富貴之人,也會比較聰明,唯自制力和判斷力差些,耐力不足,相對有些情緒化。
此类胎儿因“宿世曾修广大福故”,所以必是大富大贵之人,如领导者、国家元首及转轮圣王等。 Because the consciousness of these kinds of fetuses are from people who, “In past lives only practiced bringing about great blessings for others,” they may only become wealthy with high social rank themselves. They can become leaders, heads of states and benevolent, sagely kings. 此類胎兒因“宿世曾修廣大福故”,所以必是大富大貴之人,如領導者、國家元首及轉輪聖王等。

 

“不正念入,不正念住,不正念出”是指入胎时即已迷失自己,神昏颠倒,惊惧惶恐,贪染嫉妒,迷乱入胎。 “Lack of clarity when entering, lack of clarity when residing, and lack of clarity being born” refers to those who have lost a sense of self when they enter the womb. They are dazed and confused, and so shocked with dread that they fall in and out of consciousness with terror. They were polluted with greed and jealousy as they entered the womb, became lost, and their minds are in chaos. “不正念入,不正念住,不正念出”是指入胎時即已迷失自己,神昏顛倒,驚懼惶恐,貪染嫉妒,迷亂入胎。
及至住胎,一经种种苦恼逼迫,即刻厌恶悔恨,直至出生,痛苦加剧,愈发如刀如割,闷绝昏迷,不知自已是何人。 As soon as they reside in the fetus they are forced to endure all kinds of distress. They instantly detest their situation and feel regret. By the time they are to be born the suffering intensifies. They increasingly feel as if they are being slashed with knives and are so hopeless that they pass out. They do not remember who they were. 及至住胎,一經種種苦惱逼迫,即刻厭惡悔恨,直至出生,痛苦加劇,愈發如刀如割,悶絕昏迷,不知自已是何人。

 

这一类人属下根下智之人,经文讲这种人“乐毁净戒不修善品,常为恶事作诸恶行。 Such people have lower faculty roots and lower wisdom. The sutras speak of such people as, “Taking pleasure in not following the precepts of purity and not cultivating good habits. They use evil to fight evil. 這一類人屬下根下智之人,經文講這種人“樂毀淨戒不修善品,常為惡事作諸惡行。
心不质直多行放逸,无有智慧,贪财悭吝。 “They do not harbor thoughts of integrity and straightforwardness and are not hard working. They have no wisdom, are money-crazed and miserly. 心不質直多行放逸,無有智慧,貪財慳吝。
手常拳缩不能舒展,济惠于人恒有希望(希望得到回报)。 “They hang onto what they possess in clenched fists that they are incapable of opening. They constantly hope for material gain from anything they do and are not sincere. (always looking for payback) 手常拳縮不能舒展,濟惠於人恒有希望(希望得到回報)。
心不调顺,见行颠倒,…其心散乱。 “They are not soft and flexible, what they think and what they do are not in harmony….Their minds are scattered. 心不調順,見行顛倒,…其心散亂
由诸苦恼,不自忆识我是何人。 “Due to their troubled minds they are not aware of who they are, where they came from, or where they should go. 由諸苦惱,不自憶識我是何人。
从何而来,今何处去” 。 從何而來,今何處去” 。

 

由过去的习惯和业力,可以预见,因乏福少慧,自制力差,将来很可能是辛苦平凡之人。 Due to past habits and the power of the karma they had created, we can predict what will become of them. Due to little wisdom and lack of blessings and self-restraint, they will most likely turn out to be ordinary people and everything they do will be painstaking. 由過去的習慣和業力,可以預見,因乏福少慧,自制力差,將來很可能是辛苦平凡之人。
如严重一点的,也可能贪婪自私,狂傲倔强,不服管教; If it is graver than this, they may be greedy, selfish, proud and stubborn, and refuse to accept discipline. 如嚴重一點的,也可能貪婪自私,狂傲倔強,不服管教;
或胸无大志,习性不定,反复无常; They may have no ambition, be incapable of setting their minds to any task and be capricious. 或胸無大志,習性不定,反復無常;
也可能不守礼仪,心无慈孝,不信因果,不敬神明,终难成大器。此即一般人。 They may discard protocol and etiquette. They may not be compassionate nor have filial piety. They may not believe in cause and effect, nor respect sages, bodhisattvas nor buddhas and their teachings. In the end they will not have been of any help to others. They are just average people. 也可能不守禮儀,心無慈孝,不信因果,不敬神明,終難成大器。此即一般人。

 

七、投胎四缘 3.7 Four Conditions for Rebirth 七、投胎四緣

 

小孩投生某个家中,表面上看似随机巧合,其实不然。 The rebirth of a child into a family might appear random and coincidental, but that is not the case. 小孩投生某個家中,表面上看似隨機巧合,其實不然。
如果小孩和此生父母没有千丝万缕的因缘联系,就不可能成为骨肉相亲的一家人,我们常说“不是一家人,不进一家门”。 It would be impossible for a child to become a blood relative in the family if it were not for the countless ties of inter-connecting causes and conditions that the child has with its parents.  In Chinese there is a saying, “If not a family member, you cannot get in the family’s door.” 如果小孩和此生父母沒有千絲萬縷的因緣聯繫,就不可能成為骨肉相親的一家人,我們常說“不是一家人,不進一家門”。

 

在佛教思想中,凡事都讲一个缘字。 In Buddhist ideology, there are reasons (conditions) for everything. 在佛教思想中,凡事都講一個緣字。
所谓有缘千里来相会,那么小孩和此生父母应该具备什么样的缘分方可投胎呢? There is another Chinese saying, “When conditions are right even 1,000 miles cannot keep two people from meeting.” What then are the past conditions needed for a child to be born to its parents? 所謂有緣千里來相會,那麼小孩和此生父母應該具備什麼樣的緣分方可投胎呢?

 

总体说来,大体可归纳为四种:报恩缘、报怨缘、还债缘、讨债缘。 Overall, these conditions can be summed up into four general categories: 1) Conditions for paying a debt of gratitude; 2) conditions for avenging a grievance; 3) conditions for repaying a debt; 4) conditions for collecting payment on a debt. 總體說來,大體可歸納為四種:報恩緣、報怨緣、還債緣、討債緣。

 

报恩缘是指小孩与父母之间是报恩的关系。 Conditions for paying a debt of gratitude refers to a relationship between child and parent(s) where the child is repaying a past life debt of gratitude. 報恩緣是指小孩與父母之間是報恩的關係。
因为小孩过去世曾受过父母某些恩惠,如在困境中曾给予财物、体力、精神上的照顾、支援及保护,心中存有极强烈的感恩报德的意向,念念不忘,今世恰好条件成熟,投母胎以为身,生于此家。 For example, in a past life, the child had received some favor or kindness from the parent(s), possibly when the child was in a predicament. The parent(s) had given him/her material, physical or emotional support, caring, or protection. An extremely powerful intention to show gratitude by repaying this kindness became imbedded in the mind of the child in that past life. This intention was a thought that was never forgotten. Now in this lifetime the conditions are right for that person to be reborn into the fetus of the mother and to be reborn into this family. 因為小孩過去世曾受過父母某些恩惠,如在困境中曾給予財物、體力、精神上的照顧、支援及保護,心中存有極強烈的感恩報德的意向,念念不忘,今世恰好條件成熟,投母胎以為身,生於此家。

 

    这样的小孩,因先天的善念,将来必为孝顺之子,至于其福德能力大小,是否大富大贵,大能大巧,多半取决于个人先前的根基。 Such children, because of their innate thoughts of kindness toward the parent(s), will definitely become children who will be filial and respect their elders in the future. How great or small their blessings, merit and abilities will be, whether or not they will be wealthy, hold status, be capable and skillful, is for the most part determined by their individual innate aptitude .     這樣的小孩,因先天的善念,將來必為孝順之子,至於其福德能力大小,是否大富大貴,大能大巧,多半取決於個人先前的根基。
不過这样的小孩对父母会百依百顺,听话孝敬。 Nevertheless, such children are still unassuming and obedient to their parents. They do what they are told with filial respect. 不過這樣的小孩對父母會百依百順,聽話孝敬。
他们往往从出生就与众不同。 From the birth process we may be able to see that they are different. 他們往往從出生就與眾不同。
佛经讲“若是决为孝顺之子,擎拳合掌,安祥出生,不损伤母,母无所苦”,也就是说,这些小孩在出生的时候,首先是母亲不会太痛苦,一般不会难产,出生后,也会很省事,少病少灾,不太麻烦人,也不太让人操心,自己能够顺利成长。 The Buddhist sutras state: “If the child has filial respect, its hands will be folded together, not grasping and tearing during birth. The child will be born serene without harming the mother who will therefore be free from suffering,” This is to say, that when such children are born, first their mother will not suffer excessively. The majority of their mothers will not have a difficult labor. Second, after they are born, they will not be bothersome, will rarely be sick or cause tragedies. They will not give people trouble or cause people to worry about them. They will grow smoothly on their own. 佛經講“若是決為孝順之子,擎拳合掌,安祥出生,不損傷母,母無所苦”,也就是說,這些小孩在出生的時候,首先是母親不會太痛苦,一般不會難產,出生後,也會很省事,少病少災,不太麻煩人,也不太讓人操心,自己能夠順利成長。
在行为上,他们听话懂事,体恤父母的难处,不会令父母烦恼痛苦; They will behave and be sensible. They can empathize with their parents when their parents are in difficulty, and they will not cause their parents to worry or suffer. 在行為上,他們聽話懂事,體恤父母的難處,不會令父母煩惱痛苦;
在父母衣食起居、生活细节上,百般用心,无微不至,真正是古人所讲的孝子贤孙。 They are attentive to their parents’ daily needs and every detail in their parents’ lives. They are meticulous just like the filial and virtuous children and grandchildren mentioned in ancient myths. 在父母衣食起居、生活細節上,百般用心,無微不至,真正是古人所講的孝子賢孫。

 

报怨缘是指小孩与父母之间是报怨的关系。 Conditions for avenging a grievance refers to children who have had past life grievances with their present parent(s). 報怨緣是指小孩與父母之間是報怨的關係。
与前一种正好相反,这样的小孩由于先天的恶念,将来可能会是忤逆之子。 This is the opposite of the previous conditional category. Innate (past life) evil thoughts toward the present parent(s), which they still harbor may cause these children to be non-filial and disobedient. 與前一種正好相反,這樣的小孩由於先天的惡念,將來可能會是忤逆之子。
他们常因过去世就和父母结下仇恨积怨,或是自身或是其家人受到伤害、侮辱而怀恨在心,难以释怀,等到今世条件成熟,投胎此家。 Often, because of their past life conditions, they may have piled up grievances of hatred toward their present parent(s). In past lives these children or their family member(s) may have been harmed or humiliated, and the grudge they felt then is still harbored in their hearts and minds. This grudge has been impossible to purge from their minds. Now the conditions are just so that they have been reborn into the home of the one(s) whom they hate, who are now their parent(s). 他們常因過去世就和父母結下仇恨積怨,或是自身或是其家人受到傷害、侮辱而懷恨在心,難以釋懷,等到今世條件成熟,投胎此家。
可以想象,将来必是个百般刁难,蛮不讲理的小孩。 You can imagine the number of intentional difficulties caused by such children, who will be quite unreasonable. 可以想像,將來必是個百般刁難,蠻不講理的小孩。
他常常会无事生非,仿佛是故意制造事端,搅得一家人鸡犬不宁,烦恼不断; They will make trouble out of nothing, as if intentionally causing disputes. They will stir up the household producing turmoil and endless worry. 他常常會無事生非,仿佛是故意製造事端,攪得一家人雞犬不寧,煩惱不斷;
或不务正业,触犯王法,锒铛入狱,令父母狼狈不堪,无脸见人,甚至因小事而打伤、杀害父母,搞得家破人亡,人心惶惶。 Or such children may not take on a proper occupation. They may violate the law and be thrown into prison, placing the parents in a difficult position that is hard to bear. The parents will be too ashamed of their child to face people. Such children may even beat or murder their parents over some trivial matter ruining the family and putting everyone into a panic. 或不務正業,觸犯王法,鋃鐺入獄,令父母狼狽不堪,無臉見人,甚至因小事而打傷、殺害父母,搞得家破人亡,人心惶惶。

 

这样的小孩常在出生时,即有征兆,如佛经讲“忤逆之子,破损母胎,扯母心肝,踏母跨骨,如千刀搅,又似万刃攒心”,令母生产时,倍受痛苦,长大后自不必说,一定是有意无意地反复制造事端,让父母受尽折磨,吃尽苦头。 When such children are born it happens with omens. As the sutras state: “A non-filial and disobedient child will damage the mother during birth clawing at her heart and liver, feet planted on her pubic bones [unwilling to be born.] For the mother it is like a thousand knives stirring inside her, ten thousand blades encasing her heart.” When the mother gives birth she will suffer extreme pain. It goes without saying that as such children grow they will create incidents over and over again which appear to be inadvertent. The parents will suffer all kinds of torment and hardships. 這樣的小孩常在出生時,即有徵兆,如佛經講“忤逆之子,破損母胎,扯母心肝,踏母跨骨,如千刀攪,又似萬刃攢心”,令母生產時,倍受痛苦,長大後自不必說,一定是有意無意地反復製造事端,讓父母受盡折磨,吃盡苦頭。

 

还债缘指小孩与父母之间是还债的关系。 Conditions for repaying a debt refer to a past life relationship where the child is repaying the present parent(s) for a past debt. 還債緣指小孩與父母之間是還債的關係。
当然既是还债,仍有报答之意,所以这类小孩一般不太为难父母,但其重点是了债,故和报恩的小孩还是相差甚远。 Of course, since it is the repayment of a debt, there is also the subconscious sense of indebtedness. Such children will normally not make things difficult for their parents, yet their main point is fulfilling the obligation. This will cause a great divide between the parents and the child who wants to pay back a debt. 當然既是還債,仍有報答之意,所以這類小孩一般不太為難父母,但其重點是了債,故和報恩的小孩還是相差甚遠。
这样的小孩,多是因为前世拿了父母钱财物品,或借债未还,或因偷盗,或骗或赊等,和父母有一笔债务未了,今世机缘成熟,投生家中,成为眷属。 Such children feel that there is a debt which they owe to their parent(s) that has not yet been honored.  This is because in a past life such children may have taken money or something material from someone who is now their parent or parents. They may have borrowed something and did not return it, or stolen something, or maybe they deceived their present parent(s) or defaulted on credit, etc. Today conditions are just right for this debtor to have been born into the household as a dependent. 這樣的小孩,多是因為前世拿了父母錢財物品,或借債未還,或因偷盜,或騙或賒等,和父母有一筆債務未了,今世機緣成熟,投生家中,成為眷屬。

 

这种情况下,小孩多数内心从过去世就含有愧疚和羞耻之意, Under such circumstances most of these children will have a subconscious sense of shame and guilt from their past life experience. 這種情況下,小孩多數內心從過去世就含有愧疚和羞恥之意,
故而长大后对待父母相对比较冷淡,关系也比较疏远,有意回避,好像不好意思亲近一般,甚至对父母有轻慢心,或看不惯,讨厌、不耐烦, Therefore, after they grow up, they will act somewhat distant from their parent(s). Their relationship will be estranged. They will deliberately avoid their parent(s), as if they are embarrassed to get to close to them. Parent(s) may feel slighted by them as such children may not be able to stand the sight of their parent(s), be impatient with them or even detest them. 故而長大後對待父母相對比較冷淡,關係也比較疏遠,有意迴避,好像不好意思親近一般,甚至對父母有輕慢心,或看不慣,討厭、不耐煩,
他们会更多地忠情于自己的爱人、小孩、朋友和事业,对父母多少有一点搪塞应付之嫌,偶尔想起,打个电话,问候一声,总显得很勉强, Such children will be loyal and loving toward their own spouse or partner, children, friends and job. They will deal with their parent(s) in a more or less perfunctory way. They will occasionally think of their parent(s) and make a phone call, or ask how they are doing, but it will always appear reluctant. 他們會更多地忠情于自己的愛人、小孩、朋友和事業,對父母多少有一點搪塞應付之嫌,偶爾想起,打個電話,問候一聲,總顯得很勉強,
终不如报恩的小孩殷勤,体贴,温馨。 Such children will not be as considerate, thoughtful, warm and sweet as the children who are paying a debt of gratitude. 終不如報恩的小孩殷勤,體貼,溫馨。
但有一点,在经济问题上,他们绝不小气,每在父母生活、看病、办寿、举丧等事情上,常会出手大方,不惜钱财,却不一定是真心, But there is one point that stands out: These children will never be stingy when it comes to money. They will always be very generous toward their parent(s) in every aspect of their life/lives, be it medical, birthdays, or funerals. They will not begrudge their parent(s) any financial costs, though it may not necessarily be sincere or loving. 但有一點,在經濟問題上,他們絕不小氣,每在父母生活、看病、辦壽、舉喪等事情上,常會出手大方,不惜錢財,卻不一定是真心,
有时是为了尽义务、了心愿,或者为顾及世俗情面,而逢场作戏罢了。 Sometimes, in order to fulfill their obligations, grant a wish, or attend to some mundane “face-saving” situation, they will make appearances for show. 有時是為了盡義務、了心願,或者為顧及世俗情面,而逢場作戲罷了。

 

讨债缘指小孩与父母之间是讨债的关系。 Conditions for collecting payment on a debt refers to children demanding their parent(s) give to them what they feel is owed. 討債緣指小孩與父母之間是討債的關係。
这和前一种情况又相反,讨债的小孩,是向父母讨要过去世所欠的债务来的,所以他们的一生都是以向父母索取为主,基本上是享受、消耗、浪费的一生,这其中免不了掺杂着气愤、埋怨的成分。 This situation is contrary to the previous one. Collecting on a debt comes about because the child will demand a parent(s) to make good on what is owed them from a past life/lives. Such children will always be asking their parent(s) for things. They will live a life that is basically enjoying, consuming, and wasting. Because of this, their relationship with their parent(s) will inevitably be mixed with anger, and complaining. 這和前一種情況又相反,討債的小孩,是向父母討要過去世所欠的債務來的,所以他們的一生都是以向父母索取為主,基本上是享受、消耗、浪費的一生,這其中免不了摻雜著氣憤、埋怨的成分。
因为过去世父母在掠夺其财物的时候,必定会得罪他,当然少不了不满情绪,因此今世在讨债过程中也连带着狠狠地气父母一顿的“密意”。 In a past life/lives when the present parents were pillaging their present child of their property, it was sure to upset the person their child was at the time. Of course their present child was very resentful in that lifetime. And so now, in this lifetime, when they are together again and their child is in the process of getting back whatever is owed, he(s)he will do so with merciless anger caused by the “secret intent.” 因為過去世父母在掠奪其財物的時候,必定會得罪他,當然少不了不滿情緒,因此今世在討債過程中也連帶著狠狠地氣父母一頓的“密意”。
只是这类小孩的重点在钱上,不如前面报怨的小孩那么厉害,但也够人受的。 Though children like these also focus on money, they will not be as intense as the previous type of revengeful child. Still it will be enough to be bothersome. 只是這類小孩的重點在錢上,不如前面報怨的小孩那麼厲害,但也夠人受的。

 

这类小孩有一个最明显的特征,就是“费钱”。 Such children will have a very obvious special characteristic: They will be “costly.” 這類小孩有一個最明顯的特徵,就是“費錢”。
他们要么反复生病,令父母花钱如流水,入不敷出,乃至倾家荡产; They may get sick again and again, causing their parent’s money to flow out like water, making it hard for their parents to make ends meet, or even bankrupting them; 他們要麼反復生病,令父母花錢如流水,入不敷出,乃至傾家蕩產;
或者耗尽父母千辛万苦、省吃俭用的全部积蓄,助其成就学业、事业,等到回报的时候,突然暴病而亡,令父母人财两空,窘迫不堪; or they may exhaust their parents with unending hardships. The parents may live frugally, but all their savings will wind up paying off their child’s academic fees, or to finance their career. Then, when the parents are about to get a return on their investment, the child may suddenly get sick and die. The parents will end up with neither their child nor their savings. The distress will be unbearable. 或者耗盡父母千辛萬苦、省吃儉用的全部積蓄,助其成就學業、事業,等到回報的時候,突然暴病而亡,令父母人財兩空,窘迫不堪;
或游手好闲,不务正业,或偷或骗父母财物,挥金如土,一副花花公子的派头; Or such a child will be idle, incapable of holding down a regular job; or they may steal, or cheat their parents out of their possessions. They may be big spenders, or live a “playboy” lifestyle. 或遊手好閒,不務正業,或偷或騙父母財物,揮金如土,一副花花公子的派頭;
或吃喝玩乐,赌博吸毒,闯下大祸,惹来官司,最后导致家道中落,一贫如洗。 Or such children may only care about eating, drinking, and having a good time.  They may become gamblers or drug addicts, or break the law or bring about lawsuits. And all of this will lead the family into decline and poverty. 或吃喝玩樂,賭博吸毒,闖下大禍,惹來官司,最後導致家道中落,一貧如洗。
无论如何,都会令父母受尽辛苦,伤透心,受够气,落下心病。 No matter what, such children will cause their parents to suffer horribly. The parents will be broken hearted, angry, and constantly anxious. 無論如何,都會令父母受盡辛苦,傷透心,受夠氣,落下心病。

 

以上分类虽然一一分明,各有特点,但现实生活中,多数小孩实际上是混合型的,很少有纯粹单一的报仇或讨债来的。 Although the above classifications are each and every one distinct, with each having its own special characteristics, yet in real life, most children are actually a mixture of these. Rarely are they merely avenging or demanding payment on a debt. 以上分類雖然一一分明,各有特點,但現實生活中,多數小孩實際上是混合型的,很少有純粹單一的報仇或討債來的。
正因为如此,许多事相往往扑朔迷离,似是而非,令人眼花缭乱,真假难辨。 It is just because of this that such things are so complicated that it is hard to tell what is really going on.  The actions and relationships are paradoxical, causing people to see things in a blur, and hard to decipher what it is all about. 正因為如此,許多事相往往撲朔迷離,似是而非,令人眼花繚亂,真假難辨。
常常是还债中又夹杂讨债,报恩中又夹杂报仇等等,也有本是为报仇而来,因受到后天父母的关怀厚爱,以及良好的道德教育,冥冥之中一改初衷,变报仇为报恩了。 Often a repaying-a-debt relationship is mixed up with collecting-on-a-debt relationship.  Repaying a debt of gratitude may be intermingled with revenge. Also, originally the child in this lifetime possibly came to the parents for revenge, but due to the postnatal care and the great love of their parents, along with sound moral education, somewhere along the way the original intention changed; revenge transformed into repaying a debt of gratitude. 常常是還債中又夾雜討債,報恩中又夾雜報仇等等,也有本是為報仇而來,因受到後天父母的關懷厚愛,以及良好的道德教育,冥冥之中一改初衷,變報仇為報恩了。

 

在儿孙问题上,一般人根本看不透事实的真相,也摸不透其中的规律,只能无奈顺从,任其摆布,更因不明白因果法则,不信前世今生,一不小心,结下怨恨,生得不孝子孙,虽然极尽爱心,倍加呵护,用尽辛苦也无怨,可惜到头来,仍事与愿违,落得家破人哭,悔恨终生。 Most people simply cannot see through the problems with their children and grandchildren to get at the truth. Nor can they see the underlying universal laws.  All they do is helplessly submit and allow the manipulation to happen. Because they do not understand the law of cause and effect, do not believe that past lives bring about the present one, they will unintentionally forge resentments. They will give birth to children and grandchildren who have no filial piety. Though they give the best of their love and caring, exhaust themselves from hard work without complaint, yet unfortunately, in the end, things do not turn out as they had hoped. The family falls into ruin with tears flowing and nothing but regret till the end of their days. 在兒孫問題上,一般人根本看不透事實的真相,也摸不透其中的規律,只能無奈順從,任其擺佈,更因不明白因果法則,不信前世今生,一不小心,結下怨恨,生得不孝子孫,雖然極盡愛心,倍加呵護,用盡辛苦也無怨,可惜到頭來,仍事與願違,落得家破人哭,悔恨終生。

 

今藉佛教经典中相关内容,结合佛教高僧大德的言教,整理出适合时代需要的优生优育方案,希望能为当今社会的爱心父母参考一二。 I have compiled these chapters on auspicious birth and childhood education that are suitable and necessary for our modern times by referring to related content in the sutras. To this I added the teachings of highly developed Buddhist masters. It is my hope that this information will be a useful reference for loving parents in today’s society. 今藉佛教經典中相關內容,結合佛教高僧大德的言教,整理出適合時代需要的優生優育方案,希望能為當今社會的愛心父母參考一二。

 

附录一

杜顺和尚解怨

Appendix 3.1 –

Master Du Shun Resolves a Child’s Hatred

附錄一

杜順和尚解怨

 

唐朝的杜顺和尚有一次在外面化缘,有个斋主抱着自己的儿子,求和尚给他消灾延寿。 One day Master Du Shun of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) was out on his alms rounds. Some donors came out, holding their son, to offer the monk food. The father of the child begged the monk to grant his child a long life with freedom from misfortune. 唐朝的杜順和尚有一次在外面化緣,有個齋主抱著自己的兒子,求和尚給他消災延壽。
和尚的眼睛盯着孩子看了很久,说“这孩子本是你的冤家,现在应该给他忏悔”。 The monk stared at the child for some time before saying, “You and this child were enemies in a past life. Now you need to ask him for forgiveness.” 和尚的眼睛盯著孩子看了很久,說“這孩子本是你的冤家,現在應該給他懺悔”。

 

用过斋,和尚叫斋主把小孩抱到河边。 After finishing the food that was offered, the monk told the donors to bring their child to the river. 用過齋,和尚叫齋主把小孩抱到河邊。
一到河边,只见和尚突然抓起小孩抛入水中。 As soon as they got to the river, the monk suddenly grabbed the child and threw him into the water. 一到河邊,只見和尚突然抓起小孩拋入水中。
此时斋主夫妇大惊,不禁捶胸顿足号哭起来。 Shocked, the donors beat their chests and stamped their feet as they wailed. 此時齋主夫婦大驚,不禁捶胸頓足號哭起來。
和尚见状,安慰道:“你们的儿子还在那里呢。” Seeing them in such a state, the monk consoled them saying, “Your son is still here.” 和尚見狀,安慰道:“你們的兒子還在那裡呢。”
说完就用手一指,只见斋主的儿子,顿时化作六尺高的男子身,立于水波上,怒目厉声地对斋主斥责道: He then pointed to the river, where standing on top of the waves, stood the donors’ son. He suddenly transformed into an adult man six feet tall. Their son glared at them and angrily rebuked his parents, saying harshly, 說完就用手一指,只見齋主的兒子,頓時化作六尺高的男子身,立於水波上,怒目厲聲地對齋主斥責道:
“你前生拿了我的金银财物,还杀了我,推入水中,要不是菩萨同我解怨,我是绝不会放过你们的。” “You robbed me of my gold and silver in a past life. Then you murdered me by pushing me into turbulent water. If this bodhisattva had not resolved my rage, I would have never forgiven you.” “你前生拿了我的金銀財物,還殺了我,推入水中,要不是菩薩同我解怨,我是絕不會放過你們的。”
于是夫妇俩默默地信服和尚的神力了。 Hearing this, the couple was quietly convinced of the monk’s psychic powers. 於是夫婦倆默默地信服和尚的神力了。

 

原文是这样的:时分卫应供。斋主抱儿,乞消灾延寿之记。尚熟视曰:“此汝冤家也,当与之忏悔。”斋毕,令抱至河边,尚抛之入水。夫妇拊膺号抖。尚曰:“汝儿犹在。”即以手指之。其儿化为六尺丈夫,立于波间,嗔责之曰:“汝前生取我金帛,杀我推溺水中,不因菩萨与我解怨,誓不相赦!”夫妇默然信服。

續藏經 法界宗五祖略記

This original story is from the classic:

Xù Zàng Jīng

(Zokuzōkyō in Japanese and translated from Chinese as Appendage to the Tripitaka Sutras)

Summary Recordings by the Fifth Patriarch of the Dharma Realm School

原文是這樣的:時分衛應供。齋主抱兒,乞消災延壽之記。尚熟視曰:“此汝冤家也,當與之懺悔。”齋畢,令抱至河邊,尚拋之入水。夫婦拊膺號抖。尚曰:“汝兒猶在。”即以手指之。其兒化為六尺丈夫,立于波間,嗔責之曰:“汝前生取我金帛,殺我推溺水中,不因菩薩與我解怨,誓不相赦!”夫婦默然信服。

續藏經 法界宗五祖略記

附录二

地主与仆人的轮回

Appendix 3.b – Rebirth of Land Owners and a Peasant 附錄二

地主與僕人的輪迴

 

张经理是一位大型国企的副总经理,事业上的成功让许多人都非常羡慕她。 Ms. Zhang is the deputy general of a large state-owned enterprise. Success in her career has caused many people to be envious of her. 張經理是一位大型國企的副總經理,事業上的成功讓許多人都非常羡慕她。
然而在家里,虽然与丈夫十分恩爱,但对宝贝儿子强强却束手无措。 But at home, although she is very affectionate toward her husband, she feels helpless when it comes to her dear son, Qiangqiang. 然而在家裡,雖然與丈夫十分恩愛,但對寶貝兒子強強卻束手無措。

 

强强,是一个很聪明的孩子,从小喜欢看书,不太爱说话,在父母心中是个好孩子。 Qiangqiang, is very smart. Since childhood he enjoyed reading and was not very talkative. His parents felt he was a good boy. 強強,是一個很聰明的孩子,從小喜歡看書,不太愛說話,在父母心中是個好孩子。
可是自从上中学后,强强迷恋上了电脑游戏,不分昼夜打游戏,为此耽误了学业,已经辍学半年多了。 But since high school, Qiangqiang became obsessed with computer games. He played games day and night, causing him to forget about his studies. He dropped out of school for more than six months. 可是自從上中學後,強強迷戀上了電腦遊戲,不分晝夜打遊戲,為此耽誤了學業,已經輟學半年多了。
父母亲友、老师同学反复劝阻、教育,都无济于事,发展到后来,还打骂父母,有一次竟然打伤了父亲的右眼。 Parents, relatives, friends, teachers and classmates repeatedly dissuaded him and tried to educate him, but all to no avail. Things got worse and he began arguing with his parents. Once he even struck his father, injuring his right eye. 父母親友、老師同學反復勸阻、教育,都無濟於事,發展到後來,還打罵父母,有一次竟然打傷了父親的右眼。

 

张经理一气之下,和丈夫离家住到了朋友家。 Ms. Zhang was so angry that she and her husband moved out of their home to live in the house of a friend. 張經理一氣之下,和丈夫離家住到了朋友家。
她面容消瘦,眼睛红肿,伤心哽咽地说:“到底是什么原因,我们强强会变成这样?” 望着悲痛欲绝的张经理,我满怀同情地安慰她,并告诉她:“饱受这样痛苦煎熬果报的种子,是因为你前世种下的恶因。” With her face drawn and eyes red and swollen, choking back tears she grievously said to a Chan Master, “What has brought this about? How could our Qiangqiang become this way?” Looking at the inconsolable Ms. Zhang, the Chan Master felt such compassion that he comforted her by saying, “Suffer the agony you are experiencing now, which is the seeds of karmic retribution created by evil deeds you planted in your past lives.” 她面容消瘦,眼睛紅腫,傷心哽咽地說:“到底是什麼原因,我們強強會變成這樣?” 望著悲痛欲絕的張經理,我滿懷同情地安慰她,並告訴她:“飽受這樣痛苦煎熬果報的種子,是因為你前世種下的惡因。”

 

原来张经理和丈夫前世也是夫妻,但男女角色对换一下。 Ms. Zhang and her husband had been married to each other in a past life, but at that time she was the husband and he was the wife. 原來張經理和丈夫前世也是夫妻,但男女角色對換一下。
张经理在当地是有名的地主,为富不仁,恃富欺人。 Ms. Zhang was a famous local landlord who was heartless and rich.  He used his wealth to bully people. 張經理在當地是有名的地主,為富不仁,恃富欺人。
当时,有位年仅12岁的男孩,为了还债来做他们家的仆人。 At that time, there was a boy who had just turned 12. To pay off his family’s debts he became their indentured servant. 當時,有位年僅12歲的男孩,為了還債來做他們家的僕人。
他们俩对男孩的父母耿耿于怀,于是经常打他、骂他。 Because of the grudge they had toward the boy’s parents, they would beat and curse him regularly. 他們倆對男孩的父母耿耿於懷,於是經常打他、罵他。

 

有一天,小男孩不小心把一个名贵的花瓶打碎了,这下更激怒了他们,把小男孩痛打一顿后,将其双手双脚捆绑起来,扔在稻田里。 One day, the boy accidentally broke a valuable vase. This angered the landlords even more. After beating the boy, they bound his hands and feet and threw him into a rice paddy. 有一天,小男孩不小心把一個名貴的花瓶打碎了,這下更激怒了他們,把小男孩痛打一頓後,將其雙手雙腳捆綁起來,扔在稻田裡。
从此孩子的心里埋下了仇恨的种子,他发誓有机会一定要报复他们,讨还这笔血债。 This caused seeds of hatred to bury themselves into the child’s heart. He vowed that as soon as the opportunity arose he would get revenge.  He would get pay back on this blood debt. 從此孩子的心裡埋下了仇恨的種子,他發誓有機會一定要報復他們,討還這筆血債。

 

斗转星移,这世因缘聚合,过去世被欺辱的男孩来做张经理夫妇的宝贝儿子。 Constellations turn, stars move, and with the passage of time the causes and conditions in this world will align once again. The boy who had been humiliated has become the treasured son of the Zhang family. 斗轉星移,這世因緣聚合,過去世被欺辱的男孩來做張經理夫婦的寶貝兒子。
这孩子就是来报仇的。 And this child has come to get revenge. 這孩子就是來報仇的。

 

“呜……”了解了这段因果后,张经理痛哭起来,一旁的丈夫急忙安慰,“别哭,别哭,怪不得,强强从12岁那年就开始学坏,迷上电脑游戏后,又发展到动手打我们,原来是过去我们所造的恶业,伤害过他。 “Ohhh…,” Ms. Zhang began to cry once she understood the cause and effect behind her situation. By her side her husband hurriedly tried to console her, “Don’t cry, don’t cry. No wonder Qiangqiang turned bad at the age of twelve; got addicted to games and then began attacking us. It was all because of the bad karma we created. We had hurt him in the past. “嗚……”瞭解了這段因果後,張經理痛哭起來,一旁的丈夫急忙安慰,“別哭,別哭,怪不得,強強從12歲那年就開始學壞,迷上電腦遊戲後,又發展到動手打我們,原來是過去我們所造的惡業,傷害過他。
那我们现在应该怎么做?” “What should we do now?” He asked the Chan master. 那我們現在應該怎麼做?”

 

“最好的办法就是从现在起开始吃素,在佛前诚心忏悔往昔所造的恶业,跪诵至少49部《地藏菩萨本愿经》回向给强强,这样他才可能原谅你们,断除网瘾,你们也能受益。”

 

“The best thing to do is become vegetarian starting right now. Also, before the Buddha repent the bad karma you had created in the past. Then kneel as you chant the Sutra of the Great Vows of Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha.  Do this at least 49 times and after each time transfer the merit to Qiangqiang. By doing this he may possibly forgive you, break his addiction to games. And you will also benefit.” The Chan Master told them. “最好的辦法就是從現在起開始吃素,在佛前誠心懺悔往昔所造的惡業,跪誦至少49部《地藏菩薩本願經》迴向給強強,這樣他才可能原諒你們,斷除網癮,你們也能受益。”

 

 

过了三个月,张经理打来电话,激动地说:“真的太谢谢您了,佛法太神奇了,我们吃素、忏悔、诵经、回向。 After three months, Ms. Zhang called the Chan Master and said excitedly, “I’m truly so greatful to you.  The Buddha Dharma is miraculous. We have been vegetarian, repenting, reciting the sutra, and transferring the merit to our son. 過了三個月,張經理打來電話,激動地說:“真的太謝謝您了,佛法太神奇了,我們吃素、懺悔、誦經、迴向。
如今,儿子强强已经开始读书了,而且对我们的态度有很大转变,有一天还主动在家里烧饭菜给我们吃呢!” Now our Qiangqiang has already begun studying again. His attitude toward us has changed dramatically. Once he even made a meal for us at home, all on his own! “ 如今,兒子強強已經開始讀書了,而且對我們的態度有很大轉變,有一天還主動在家裡燒飯菜給我們吃呢!”
确实,化解冤结最好的办法就是佛法。 The Dharma is indeed the best way to untie the knots of hatred. 確實,化解冤結最好的辦法就是佛法。

 

这个事例告诉大家:家里有不听话的、很难调教的子女,大多是前生曾伤害过的众生来投胎。 This case tells us that if there is a disobedient child at home who is difficult to educate, it is most likely because he or she is someone who had been hurt by you in a past life and is now reborn into your home. 這個事例告訴大家:家裡有不聽話的、很難調教的子女,大多是前生曾傷害過的眾生來投胎。
作父母的应深信因果,从自身做起,不应该盲目地打骂孩子,要忏悔自己的前生甚至无始劫以来的所作所为,吃素,为子女诵经回向。 By their own conduct, parents of such children can show that they accept cause and effect. They should not blindly strike or scold their children. Instead, they should repent their wrongdoings in past lives. Repent their wrongdoings from even the beginning of time. Become vegetarian and recite the sutras and transfer the merit to their children. 作父母的應深信因果,從自身做起,不應該盲目地打罵孩子,要懺悔自己的前生甚至無始劫以來的所作所為,吃素,為子女誦經迴向。

 

祈愿佛力摄受,使父母与子女的恶缘化解转变为善缘,再循序渐进地教育子女懂得孝养父母等一些做人的道理,时间久了,儿女的行为自然会大为改变。 May parents be able to accept the teachings of the Buddha, which will make the negative karma between them and their children neutralize. May it transform into good karma and systematically and gradually educate their children to understand how to show filial piety toward their parents. May parents teach their children the principles behind becoming a true person. Over time, children’s behavior will naturally and greatly improve. 祈願佛力攝受,使父母與子女的惡緣化解轉變為善緣,再循序漸進地教育子女懂得孝養父母等一些做人的道理,時間久了,兒女的行為自然會大為改變。

 

所以,凡要想让子女转变成好孩子,先要转变自己,断恶修善,亲近佛法,转烦恼为菩提,双方获益,全家获益,使之事半功倍。 Therefore, to let children transform into good children, we must first transform ourselves. We must stop whatever it is we do that is bad and practice kindness. We should become closer to the teachings of the Buddha – the Buddha Dharma. Transform our disturbed minds into minds of bodhi (wisdom; enlightenment). Everyone will benefit from this. The entire family will benefit. We will reap twice as much from what we have planted. 所以,凡要想讓子女轉變成好孩子,先要轉變自己,斷惡修善,親近佛法,轉煩惱為菩提,雙方獲益,全家獲益,使之事半功倍。

 

做子女的,若有不仁慈的父母亦是同理。 And as for the children, if you have parents who are unkind to you, the same principles apply. 做子女的,若有不仁慈的父母亦是同理。
(摘自《现代因果实录》) (From True Accounts of Cause and Effect in Modern Times) (摘自《現代因果實錄》)

 

 

 

 

 

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